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A few key design decisions allowed the team to achieve its objectives. In most office layouts, the architect places the offices around the perimeter, providing plenty of daylight and a view, but blocking daylight from the core zone. In this case, the architect, lighting designer, and electrical engineer all agreed to an open office plan featuring short cubicle partitions18with translucent tops to increase daylight uniformity while preserving visual and acoustic privacy. Private offices and conference rooms were located in the interior core, with glass walls facing the perimeter to increase outside views, as shown in Figure 5 of the Appendix. While achieving good overall function and aesthetics, the layout design offered occupants an outside view from 97 percent of all regularly used space, earning one LEED point. It also achieved a minimum 2.5 percent Daylight Factor for more than 75 percent of the space—another LEED point.19After meeting a significant portion of the lighting load passively, the team turned to the design of an electric lighting system. In most projects, where electrical engineers do not know the furniture layout, designs provide enough light across the entire work plane to accommodate any potential furniture arrangement. This often overlights display screens and exceeds the acceptable luminance ratio between paper and screen tasks. By contrast, the team’s design features reduced ambient light and integrated task lighting on desktops, where most light is needed. The design’s lighting power density (LPD), in watts per square foot, was 35 percent lower than the standard, thanks to both lower ambient light levels and more efficient luminaires.2010xe PrInCIPleCollaborate across disciplines.10xe PrInCIPleWring multiple benefits from single expenditures.15Edmondson, Amy C., and Faaiza Rashid. (2009) “Integrated Project Delivery at Autodesk, Inc.” Harvard Business School Publishing, www.hbsp.harvard.edu/educators.16The LEED CI 2.0 system awards up to seven points for lighting performance; a total of 42 points is required for LEED Platinum certification.17 The BIM allows users to export a simplified building model because sustainability analysis tools require only the most basic building geometry and are easily confused by extra details. Model interoperability, particularly between BIM and energy models, can be a major problem in some cases.18Standard office cubicle partitions are 72” high; the Autodesk cubicles are 48”.19Daylight Factor represents the ratio of exterior to interior illumination, taking into account occupied floor area, as well as window area, geom-etry, location, and visual transmittance. 20ASHRAE Standard 90.1 2004 specifies a maximum of 1.1 watts per square foot (connected load) for office areas.
6 | RMIAutodesk | Factor 10 Engineering Case Study | August 2010As a result of the BIM-enabled integrative design process, the lighting design helped significantly to achieve the project’s goals. The design achieved six out of the seven
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Building Information Modeling, Integrated Project Delivery, Autodesk Inc.