– Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)-Adult: 75 mg PO BID X 5 d (treatment), 75 mg/d PO for 7 d (prevention), Pediatric (1-12y) 30-75 mg BID PO for 5d (treatment), 30-75 mg/d for 7 d (prevention), TX & prevention of uncomplicated influenza for patient who is symptomatic for < 2 days; only antiviral agent effective in treatment of avian flu • Nice to Know – Peramivir (Rapivab) – Ribavirin (Rebetron, Virazole)-Pregnancy category X – Rimantadine (Flumadine) – Zanamivir (Relenza)-Inhalation
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Influenza A and Respiratory Antivirals Influenza A and Respiratory Antivirals • Indications – Prevent shedding of the viral protein coat & entry of virus into cell • Pharmacokinetics – Absorbed readily, excreted unchanged in the urine, metabolized in the urine and liver, feces and cellular level. Excreted primarily via urine but also feces. • Contraindications – Allergy, renal impairment, pregnancy, or lactating • Adverse Reactions – Dizziness, insomnia, nausea, orthostatic hypotension and urinary retention • Drug-to-Drug Interactions – Anticholinergic agents can lead to ꜛ Atropine like effects – ASA & Tylenol -> decrease effect of these drugs
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Nursing Considerations for Respiratory Antiviral Therapy Nursing Considerations for Respiratory Antiviral Therapy • Pre Administration : – History of allergy to antivirals, liver or renal dysfunction, Pregnancy or lactation – Assessment-VS, orientation, reflexes, lung sounds – Labs-renal/liver function – Post Administration • Assessment-VS, lung sounds, S&S of infection, • Labs • Safety- side rails up due to CNS symptoms, avoid driving & hazardous tasks if CNS effects occur, report any adverse effects • Teaching-administer flu vaccines before season, take full course, regimen, dosing, AE, prevention of spreading
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Prototype of Respiratory Antiviral Agents Prototype of Respiratory Antiviral Agents
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Question Question Tell whether the following statement is true or false. Treatment of a viral infection is difficult without serious toxic effects for the host.
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Answer Answer True Rationale: A virus must enter a human cell to survive, making it difficult to treat without serious toxic effects for the host.
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Herpes Virus Herpes Virus • Viruses account for a broad range of conditions, including cold sores, encephalitis, shingles, and genital infections. • S&S – Painful vesicles that often occur in clusters on skin, cornea, or mucous membranes. – Usual course of primary disease is two weeks – Duration of recurrences varies
Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer • All Rights Reserved Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) • May be asymptomatic • Fatigue • Nausea • Jaundice • If contracted during pregnancy can result in stillbirth, brain damage, or birth defects.
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- Fall '17
- Antiretroviral drug, Wolters Kluwer Health