Dysfunctions failures of internal mechanisms to perform naturally selected

Dysfunctions failures of internal mechanisms to

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Dysfunctions: failures of internal mechanisms to perform naturally selected functions Wakefield o To conclude that a given behaviour is disordered: requires both a scientific judgment that there exists a failure of designed function and a value judgment that the design failure harms the individual o Unless there are dysfunctional consequences to the individual (he/she is unable to perform natural function) it makes little sense to call behaviour abnormal Evolutionary theory: a trait may be dysfunctional if it harms an organism’s capacity to reproduce successfully o Antisocial behaviour results in being excluded from everyday society, therefore hurting a person’s capacity to reproduce Pedophilia: marrying children used to be common, does this mean that people in these cultures should receive a diagnosis of pedophilia? VIOLATION OF NORMS Idea that psychologically abnormal people are unpredictable and somehow dangerous o Very few people suffering from a psychiatric disorder are dangerous to others o Movies portray killers and rapists as mad Flaw: social norms vary over time and place few disorders are truly universal across different cultures o Depression: higher prevalence rate in Canada & US than in some places in Asia How we define abnormality is culturally relative: o Norms of a particular culture determine what is considered to be normal behaviour, abnormality can be defined only in reference to these norms What used to be classified as abnormal considered to be a violation of norms: o Homosexuality o Masturbation o Jews DIAGNOSIS BY AN EXPERT Clinical psychologists: initially trained in general psychology and then receive graduate training in the application of this knowledge to the understanding, diagnosis, and amelioration of disorders of thinking and behaviour o Treatment methods involve primarily psychological interventions Psychiatrists: trained in medicine prior to doing specialized training in dealing with mental disorders focuses on diagnosis and medical treatment, use of pharmacological agents in managing mental disorders Psychiatric nurses: have received formal training in nursing before completing a specialization in psychiatric problems work in hospitals and manage day-to-day care of mentally disordered patients Psychiatric social workers: attend to the influence of the social environment on disordered clients usually have a graduate degree in social work, provide assistance to clients adjusting to life within their fams and community
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Occupational therapists (OT’s): may practice in Canada with a baccalaureate degree + with field- training experience, sometimes involved in providing mental health care (training in community living skills) Thomas Szaz – suggested that mental disorders were invented by psychiatry to give control to its practitioners to the exclusion of other people (clergymen) who had greater power over psychologically disordered Power held by mental health professionals remains an issue
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