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Gelles 1987 observes that children whose family of

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Gelles (1987) observes that children whose family of origin is violent frequently continue to exhibitsimilar patterns of abuse in their family of procreation. Dutton (1995)notes the link between malechildren who witness domestic violence and the increased likelihood of those same individuals laterabusing their own partners. This view is further supported by Hofeller (1987) and Jaffe, Lemon,
Sandler, and Wolfe (1996), who argue that men who are raised in abusive environments are at least10 times more likely to exhibit violent behaviour (Baker, 2011).Child AbuseTwenty three percent of the victims of physical and sexual abuse are children. Parents (39%) are themostly likely perpetrators, followed by siblings (32%) and extended family members (28%) being thethird most likely perpetrators of child abuse. The average age of child victims who are sexuallyabused by family members is nine years old. The average age for children who are physically abusedby a family member is twelve years old. Eight four percent of family members who abuse children aremale.In Canada during 2000, there were 55 homicides of children and youths, of which family memberskilled 31 of these. In total, 66% were killed by fathers (14 by biological fathers, 5 by stepfathers) and34% were killed by mothers (Stats Canada, 2002).Red Flags of Child AbuseThe following are some of the more common potential indicators of potential child abuse. Indicatorsof non-accidental injury may include patterned distributions of burns and injuries including “splash”burns and cigarette “line” burns. Infants who cannot walk may have a brain injury. Examples of familymember’s explanations take the form of,” they fell from a chair, bed or sofa”. The presence of ribfractures in infants and toddlers (esp. post rib fractures) is a potential indicator of physical abuse.The presence of a complex skull fracture indicates that the skull may have impacted with a significantforce and is suggestive of a blow to the head. Also the presence of multiple patterned bruises is apotential indicator. Brain hemorrhages that have retinal bleeding are indicative of a possible shaken-baby syndrome. Tears to frenulum linguae are suggestive of sexual abuse. Patterned hair losses withpetechiae are consistent with the ripping and tearing of hair out of the scalp (Barber & Sibert, 2000;Jarvis, 2009).Behavioural Indicators of child who have been abused may include, the children having low self-esteem and exhibiting psychosomatic illnesses. These individuals may also appear secretive in theirexplanations of illness and injuries. They may also appear fearful of reprisal from adults in general.They may exhibit difficulty in school through acting out, have difficulty concentrating in class orappear withdrawn. Many children who have been abused may demonstrate violence towards theirpets and other animals (Jarvis, 2009; Temscheff et al., 2008).

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