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Patriarch of Constantinople is the head, then the other Patriarchs, then metropolitans and archbishops, then bishops, then priests•Priests should be married, but the higher orders should be celibateoPriests = secular; higher = monasteries
•This means that the monasteries have even more power, so iconoclasm develops as a way to limit that poweroCouncil of Nicaea in 786 said that iconoclasm was a heresyThis council was also the last true ecumenical council•Pope vs. Patriarch•Council of Constantinople (381) said the Patriarch of Constantinople is second to the Papacy•Council of Chalcedon said the Patriarch of Constantinople is the equal of the Papacy•7thcentury: Muslims take North Africa and the eastern MediterraneanoPatriarchates begin to disappearLeft with only two: Rome and Constantinople•Things get ugly.oIconoclasm doesn’t help.oPope invokes Petrine Doctrine to try to take power as ultimate authorityoTrue division starts in the Photian controversyWho’s truly in charge?•Pope doesn’t like that the Emperor appointed a lay scholar (Photius) as Patriarch of ConstantinopleoPower struggle heightened with addition of Balkan churchesDivision line between east and west didn’t take missionary work into accountWest helped convert people in modern-day Romania; east converted people in modern-day Bulgaria and the Serbians (who were on the other side of the imaginary line)•“We’ll give you Serbia if you give us Romania.”Led to increasingly strained relationsoBreaking point: Charlemagne is crowned as Roman Emperor in 800 by the PopeUsually, Emperors are crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, so the Pope has broken tradition and has started a new one•From then on, Emperors are crowned by the Pope•Schism•Leo IX vs. CerulariusoAzyma Controversy•Issues:oPapal superiorityoFilioque (“of the son”)Spanish were being converted in the 6thcentury, but didn’t understand the concept of the Trinity—they don’t get why the Holy Spirit is separate from Jesus when both come “from the Father”•Pope adds the word “filioque” to the statement of faithoDoesn’t consult the Patriarch of Constantinople, so he refuses to acknowledge itoAzyma Controversy (1054)Issue: Which kind of bread should be used within the church?•East: Dryer climate, so it uses risen bread. Over time, the bread takes on more significance, so there are elaborate ceremonies and it falls to the monasteries to make the bread instead of everyone bringing their own.•West: Wetter climate, but you can’ t have moldy bread because the bread is the body of Christ, so they switch to azyma instead of yeast bread; eventually they switch to crackersoProblem: Crackers can’t be cut up for Eastern traditions.