2 2 2 2 c � ν PVnRT 3 1 2 2 1 2 008206 831451 1 2 u 2 3 2 Colligative

2 2 2 2 c ? ν pvnrt 3 1 2 2 1 2 008206 831451 1 2 u

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𝐽𝐽 ∙ �𝑍𝑍2𝑛𝑛𝑓𝑓2𝑍𝑍2𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑖2c = λνPV=nRT 𝑢𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑚𝑚𝑟𝑟=3𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝑟𝑟𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝑛𝑛𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝐺𝐺𝑅𝑅𝑟𝑟1𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝑟𝑟𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝑛𝑛𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝐺𝐺𝑅𝑅𝑟𝑟2= �𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀2�𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀1�𝑃𝑃+𝑎𝑎 �𝑛𝑛𝑉𝑉2(𝑉𝑉 − 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛) =𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛= 0.08206𝐿𝐿∙𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝐸𝐸𝑚𝑚∙𝐾𝐾= 8.31451𝐽𝐽𝑚𝑚𝐸𝐸𝑚𝑚∙𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐸𝐸=12𝑚𝑚u2=32𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝=𝑝𝑝𝐾𝐾𝑅𝑅+𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 �𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝𝐴𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝𝑝=𝑝𝑝𝐾𝐾𝑏𝑏+𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 �𝑝𝑝𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴Colligative properties: Π=iCRT T=iKfpm ΔT=iKbpm PA=PAoXAHenry’s Law: C=kP Arrhenius equation: k=Ae-Ea/RTand A=pz 1storder rate law: ln[A] = -kt +ln[A]02ndorder rate law: 1/[A]= kt + 1/[A]01stLaw of Thermodynamics: ΔEtotal= ΔEsys+ ΔEsur=0 2ndLaw of Thermodynamics: Stotal = Ssys+Ssur ≥ 0and Ssur = Esur/Tand Swt = 0 3rdLaw of Thermodynamics: 0K= 0 for pure, crystalline substances G=H-TS rG = rG° + RTlnQ Nernst Equation:E=Eo-(0.0592V mol e-/n)logQ G=-nFE rG°=-RTlnK F = 96,500 C/mol e-
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Solubility rules 1.Most nitrate (NO3-) salts are soluble. 2.Most alkali metal (group 1A) salts and NH4+are soluble. 3.Most Cl-, Br-, and I-salts are soluble (except Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22+). 4.Most sulfate salts are soluble (except BaSO4, PbSO4, Hg2SO4, CaSO4). 5.Most OH-are only slightly soluble (NaOH, KOH are soluble, Ba(OH)2, Ca(OH)2are (marginally) soluble). (For CHEM 111/105/106, treat slightly as insoluble and marginally as soluble.) 6.Most S2-, CO32-, CrO42-, PO43-salts are only slightly soluble, except for those containing the cations in Rule 2.
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