The assumptions behind Theory Y emphasize the motivation of employees through goals that promote creativity or social causes. Theory X managers, on the other hand, motivate workers with extrinsic rewards such as money or promotions. In Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency theory, the subordinate-centered leader relies entirely on the subordinates to make the decisions . In the subordinate-centered leadership style, the boss delegates the decision-making authority to the subordinates . According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency approach, there is no correct leadership style--to what extent a leader should be boss-centered or subordinate-centered depends on the situation. Tannenbaum and Schmidt's contingency approach stated that the most effective leadership type depends on factors such as the kind of subordinates, time pressures, and what the leader is trying to accomplish. The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with his or her subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Fiedler developed an instrument, which he called the least preferred coworker (LPC) questionnaire, which purports to measure whether a person is task or relationship oriented. Further, he isolated three situational criteria: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. He believed that these criteria can be manipulated so as to create the proper match with the behavioral orientation of the leader. A significant finding of Fiedler's contingency theory was that a leader's style cannot be changed . Fred Fiedler believed that a person's leadership style cannot be changed; they must try to find situations which match their style, or change the situation. A key aspect of Fiedler's contingency theory is the idea of basing a leader's style on his motivation in terms of an LPC scale. Fred Fiedler's contingency theory puts leaders on an LPC scale. High-LPC leaders are more relationship oriented, whereas low-LPC leaders are more task-oriented. LPC stands for least preferred coworker. In an experiment, the control group is kept under normal conditions, and the experimental group is subject to a particular condition. The point is to see the effect of the condition on the experimental group, and compare it to the group which hasn't experienced the condition. An Ethnocentric theory supposes that all facts related to human development are universal across cultures, races, and nations. Multicultural Counseling and Therapy was developed in direct opposition to this homogenous worldview. Most counselors have come to recognize the important role that a person’s culture has on the overall personality and behavioral development.
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