These vicious unconscious desires accumulate the

This preview shows page 24 - 25 out of 39 pages.

These vicious unconscious desires accumulate the collective guilt of all humanity Freud views religious tradition as a means of atonement for this collective guilt Empirical study of the unconscious is impossible, thus this theory is hard to refute Criticism Freud’s narrow view of religion ignores its cultural and social meanings Strengths Freud’s theory is coherent, and testable components stand up well to evaluations Theory postulates that sexually repressive societies are authoritarian and religious Conversely, people will become less devout as sexual expression is liberated Interestingly, this liberation already happened in the 20 th century Western world Secularization Freud and Durkheim view secularization as a positive development Durkheim : Secularization denoted a growth in tolerant diversity Freud : Secularization denoted a drop in social repression Secularization theory seems largely true E.g., Napoleon diminished secular power of Catholic Church in 19 th century However, public places still close according to Christian customs Therefore, religion, especially Christianity, still has a huge role Most dramatic example of secularization is provided by Quebec in the 20 th century The situation of the Roman Catholic Church playing a significant role in Quebec is documented in French Canada in Transition (Everett C. Hughes [1943]) Church attendance in the 1960s dropped dramatically, marking the beginning of Quebec’s Quiet Revolution Social differentiation Less concentration is placed on the Church as it becomes only one of many institutions in a growing society Societalization Most look to society to provide for their needs through jobs, the news, school, and elections Interaction with society leaves little room for the personal and marginal religion Rationalization Paradoxically, Judeo-Christianity encouraged rationalization to shift focus away from superstition and mythology The reliance on religious texts was changed to a reliance on empirical evidence and scientific thinking Civil Religion Represents an interesting mid-point between secular and sacred approaches Nationalism , an important form of civil religion, reigns powerful in the US Religious beliefs in American exceptionalism are often linked to nationalism Nationalist US celebrations are larger than comparable Canadian celebrations Compare Independence Day, Memorial Day, Canada Day & Remembrance Day Sporting Events (Robert Bellah et al.) Events such as the Super Bowl provide cohesiveness apart from religion People of various religions can all partake in the Super Bowl experience Therefore, civil religions allow those of different faiths to coexist in harmony This coexistence explains outrage over Janet Jackson’s wardrobe malfunction New Religious Movements These movements exist globally and have recently increased in popularity NRMs are ridiculed by the mainstream society (E.g., cult depictions)

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture