This allows air in the syringe to rise toward the needle and settle on top of

This allows air in the syringe to rise toward the

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syringe with the first medication in a vertical position, with the needle tip pointing up. This allows air in the syringe to rise toward the needle and settle on top of the medication so that it can be injected rather than the medication in the syringe. Instill the air from the cartridge and withdraw the appropriate volume of medication into the cartridge, where the two medications mix. Comparison of Routes of Administration Generally oral administration is the safest and most convenient route; however, it has the slowest onset of action of all the routes and provides a lower blood level than all other routes of administration. Before an oral medication can begin to work, it must first be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the portal circulation that transports the medication to the liver. One of the liver’s most important functions, due to its protective nature, is metabolizing and detoxifying potentially harmful agents in the blood. As the liver metabolizes the drug, it decreases the amount of drug remaining in the blood after it leaves the liver to enter the systemic circulation, where it can perform its intended function. This process is known as first-pass metabolism. The routes of administration that escape first-pass metabolism include sublingual, buccal, and parenteral routes because they all provide absorption directly into the systemic circulation rather than into the portal circulation of the digestive tract. The most common parenteral routes are classified as intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular. An ID injection deposits the medication into the epidermis, or the outer layers of the skin, while a subcut injection is injected under the layers of the skin into the subcutaneous tissue layer. An IM injection is administered into the deep muscle tissue below the subcutaneous layer of tissue. Intradermal Injections An ID injection is the injection of a small amount of fluid into the dermis, or true skin layer immediately below the epidermis. It is commonly used as a diagnostic tool, such as testing for allergies or tuberculosis.
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The length of the needle for an ID injection should be to inch, with a very small-diameter needle between 25 and 30 G Position the needle bevel up and use a 15-degree angle for insertion of the needle. Instill the medication between the layers of the dermis to create a bleb, which looks somewhat like a small, raised, fluid-filled blister If a drop of blood or fluid leaks from the puncture site after withdrawing the needle, gently touch the corner of the drop with a dry cotton ball or alcohol wipe to remove it, but do not apply pressure to the site. Subcutaneous Injections A subcut injection deposits the medication into the subcutaneous layer below the skin and above the muscle layer. It contains fewer blood vessels than muscle, producing a slower absorption time compared to IM injections.
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  • Fall '19
  • Syringe

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