In an empirical study of several projects crossing

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which raises questions for the project to combine design and management. In an empirical study of several projects crossing design and IT, social science and design, and art and science, Barry et al. (2008) found that an idealized
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interdisciplinarity was more complicated than its advocates suggest. Barry et al. identified three modes of interdisciplinarity. One, the service mode, involves one discipline being in service to another for example design being in the service of management, an idea central to earlier work in design management (cf. Borja de Mozota 2003), or management in the service of design. The second, the integrative-synthesis mode, involves disciplines 164 New Educati onal Perspectives for Designers and Manag ers integrating for example efforts to fuse design and management into a new holistic educational programme in which design is a kind of management and management a kind of design. A key example here is the project that conceives of managing as designing and aims to complement the well-established decision attitude in management education and practice with a design attitude (Boland and Collopy 2004). The third, the agonistic-antagonistic mode, is forged as those advocating change question disciplinary commitments to ideas of what constitutes reality and what constitutes knowledge. In this mode, the encounter between design and management may be destabilizing, but may also be illuminating and productive. Barry et al. s findings raise questions about what might happen at the boundaries of design fields and management disciplines. The service mode and the integrative- synthesis mode may be the aspiration for project or organizational teams, but the agonistic-antagonistic mode may also produce important new questions and new knowledge. What this means for our imaginary M(B)A is that it will not rely on simple attempts to fuse design and management, or consider the management of design, or the (re)design of management. This M(B)A will privilege design as the activity of conceiving of, creating and organizing for better futures realized in the shifts between knowledge and action, but it will also acknowledge the agonistic-antagonistic mode that will, at times, produce irreconcilable differences between disciplines. To summarize, in contrast to conventional presentations of new postgraduate programmes, this M(B)A manifesto attends to both knowledge and its limits. Established bodies of knowledge are not sufficient when stakes are high and purposes are contested and disciplines, while they can serve one another and integrate fruitfully, can also present one another with important and impossible differences. The resulting uncomfortable fluidity and hybridity means this M(B)A may not ever be able to come into existence because, as conceived of here, it is unlikely to meet the requirements for awarding degrees at either a design school or a management school because of the ways disciplines are governed. But let us move on nonetheless to explore it further.
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