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Park’s arrest sparks outrage, activates institutional support system in Montgomery ●381 days, amidst harassment and violence, blacks refuse to ride public transportation in Montgomery ●November 1956: US supreme court ruled segregation in public transportation unconstitutional An era of Protest ●The late 1950s, early 1960s, sit-ins, protests, boycotts across jim crow south ●1961: freedom riders in the south ●Attacked by the klan/ even assassinated ●Sept. 1962 court orders U of Miss to admit James Meredith Birmingham 1963 ●Spring of 1963 demonstrates across the south ●One week in June 15k arrests in 186 cities
May 06, 2019 ●Protesting inequality in housing, education, employment ●In, May 1963, Martin Luther King King Jr. schoolchildren, beaten, attacked by dogs and firehouses ●Protesters, including school children, beaten, attacked by dogs and firehouses ●Forced whites to choose sides ●June 1963, Medgar ever killed: Sept 1963, the bombing of a back church in Birmingham kills 4 young girls The march on Washington ●Aug 28, 1963 -- 250,00 march on D.C. ●Left Phillip Randolph ●Call for civil “jobs and freedom”: public works program, increase in the minimum wage, end discrimination ●King: “I have a Dream” ●Unprecedented black-white cooperation Civil Rights Act of 1964 ●Passed Congress, after JFK’s assassination ●Prohibited racial discrimination in employment, private and public, accommodations, institutions like hospitals and schools ●Ends Jim Crow America but in Federal level though not in lived experience May 24, 2019 - continued slide from last time ●Also banned discrimination based on sex ●Did not address the issue of voting rights ○Did not address the voting rights Voting Rights Act of 1965 ●June 1964 three civil rights activist kidnapped and murdered in Philadelphia, Mississippi ●1961-1965 estimated 25 blacks had been killed ●Death of Whites in Philadelphia sparked outrage ●January 1965 March on Selma (only 355 of 15,000 black residents were registered) ●Attacked with cattle prods, whips, tear gas ●Congress passes the Voting Rights Act which allowed the federal government to register voters ●Regain suffrage lost in the 1870s ●Did voting bring change? Ongoing Backlash and Discontent ●Attacks by klan during the 1964’s freedom summer ●1964: Republicans nominate Barry Goldwater, voted against the Civil Rights Act ●America in 1965… III. Rise of Red Power ●The 1960s saw a rise of Native American civil rights advocacy
May 06, 2019 ●Truman and Eisenhower administration ●Had implemented “termination” Policy ●1968: American Indian Movement (AIM) forms advocating tribal self-determination and restoration of economic resources taken in treaties ●Occupation of Alcatraz Island, 1969-1971 ○The Indians had their moment to move in their argument and remind people of their discriminatory past ●Hundreds of acts of civil obedience ●Nixon Administration Discriminatory Determination policy IV. Latino Activism ●Chicano movement develops in the 1960s: concern with cultural pride and second class economic status ●