Positively after the rater has been repeatedly

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positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them Familiarity does not breed contempt Fosters fondness (Bornstein, 1989) Mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968, 1970) University of Michigan students preferred whichever of these words they had seen most frequently The more times they had seen a meaningless word a Chinese ideograph The more likely they were to say it meant something good Moreland and Beach (1992) 3 (out of 4) female confederates attended a large lecture class 5, 10, or 15 times
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Students were shown photos and asked to rate them on recognition (of them) and liking (for them) The more a confederate came to class the more she was liked Although students did not differ in their recognition of these confederates Name letter effect People of differing backgrounds prefer the letters appearing in their own names and those that frequently appear in their own languages Violates the commonsense prediction of boredom Decreased interest Regarding repeatedly heard music or tasted food (Kahneman & Snell, 1992) Unless the repetitions are incessant Familiarity usually doesn’t breed contempt Increase liking To know is to like (Harmon-Jones & Allen, 2001) When they showed people a woman’s face Their cheek muscles typically became more active with repeated viewings Mere exposure breeds pleasant feelings Exposure without awareness leads to liking (Zajonc & others, 1980) Mere exposure has an even stronger effect when people receive stimuli without awareness (Bornstein & D’Agostino, 1992) Women students using headphones listened in one ear to a prose passage Repeated the words out loud and compared them with a written version to check for errors Meanwhile, brief, novel melodies played in the other ear Focused attention on the verbal material and away from the tunes When the women heard the tunes interspersed among similar ones not previously played Did not recognize them Liked best the tunes they had previously heard Conscious judgments about the stimuli provided fewer clues to what people had heard or seen than did their instant feelings Recall immediately and intuitively liking or disliking something or someone without consciously knowing why
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Emotions are often more instantaneous than thinking (Zajonc, 1980) Emotions are semi-independent of thinking Affect may precede cognition Emotion and cognition are enabled by distinct brain regions Lesion in amygdala (the emotion-related brain structure) Impaired emotional responses Intact cognitive functions Lesion hippocampus (a memory-related structure) Impaired cognitive functiosn Intact emotional responses Has enormous adaptive significance (Zajonc, 1998) Hardwired phenomenon that predisposes our attractions and attachments Helped our ancestors categorize things and people as either familiar and safe, or unfamiliar and possibly dangerous Colors our evaluations of others
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  • Fall '16
  • The Hours, partner, Interpersonal relationship, Interpersonal attraction,  Feel

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