engineers can better understand phase behavior of more complex mixtures. 2. Theory Phase behavior of ternary mixtures can be applied to a multitude of applications and can be analyzed for binodal curves and two-phase regions. With an understanding of Gibbs phase rule and degrees of freedom, ternary systems have zero degrees of freedom. This is because the phase rule says that the degree of freedom is equal to the number of components minus the number of phases or in equation format: N F = N C − N P Concentration can also be derived if there are only two phases present in the overall mixture: C i = C i 1 S 1 + C i 2 S 2 , in which the C term is the volumetric concentration of one component in a particular phase and the S term is the saturation of a particular phase. The experiment will satisfy two main conditions of: (1) C 1 + C 2 + C 3 = 1 and (2) C 1 j + C 2 j + C 3 j = 1 3. Safety Precautions There are a few important safety considerations to remember when proceeding with this experiment. One of them being the safe handling of glass-ware and the response if something were to break. The beakers, graduated cylinders, and pipettes used in this lab are very fragile and prone to mishandling. Students must wear close toed shoes and eye protection to avoid harm around broken glass. Another safety concern pertains to the chemicals used in this lab. The calcium chloride, isopropyl alcohol, and hexane can be hazardous if in contact with the eyes or skin, inhaled, or digested. Therefore, students in the lab must wear appropriate personal protective gear: lab coats, long pants, goggles, and gloves. It is also advised that the area be well ventilated.
PGE 427 Properties of Petroleum Fluids Spring 2019 4. Source of Error All of the exercises in this lab are a combination of measuring components, mixing them, titrating fluids, and recording observations. The errors associated with measuring is associated with human error. In the measuring of the liquids, if the process and view point is not consistent the data may vary between trials.
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- Spring '16
- Thermodynamics, Triple point, Gibbs' phase rule, Brine Vol