Lecture 32 - Endocrine Physiology I

Dont have the take the time to completely synthesize

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Don’t have the take the time to completely synthesize proteins Peptides are synthesized via mRNA, binds to amino acids and produces a peptide  chains Preprohormone is directed into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum In the ER, the signal sequence is chopped off and the prohormones is packaged into  vesicles Goes through the Golgi Then gets packaged into secretory vesicles, which contain the prohormone Is then chopped again into active and inactive parts Inactive parts can be used for other things Sometimes there can be six or more copies in the preprohormone When it gets to the Golgi it can be chopped into more active versions Released into ECF, then goes into the blood Steroid Hormones All steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol Not readily water soluble Transported in blood bound to carrier molecules (e.g. albumin) Half life af 1-1.5 hours Can cross lipid bilayers Receptors tend to be in cytosol or nucleus
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Receptors usually act as transcription factors either activating or repressing one or more  genes Major steroid hormones Cortisol Aldosterone Both are produced in the adrenal cortex with other adrenal androgens Testosterone and other androgens Produced in the testes Estradiol and other estrogens Progesterone Both of the above are produced in the ovaries Production is tightly regulated, and usually by other hormones Protein carrier, hormones becomes unbound from it and diffuses through the cell  membrane
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