Positive punishment something is added to decrease

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Positive Punishment Something is added to decrease undesired behavior. Ex: Give student detention for failing to follow the class rules. NEGATIVE (Something is removed.) Negative Reinforcement Something is removed to increase desired behavior. Ex: Give a free homework pass for turning in all assignments. Negative Punishment Something is removed to decrease undesired behavior. Ex: Make student miss their time in recess for not following the class rules.
9 Extinction decreases the probability of a response by contingent withdrawal of a previously reinforced stimulus. Examples of extinction are: A student has developed the habit of saying the punctuation marks when reading aloud. Classmates reinforce the behavior by laughing when he does so. The teacher tells the students not to laugh, thus extinguishing the behavior. A teacher gives partial credit for late assignments; other teachers think this is unfair; the teacher decides to then give zeros for the late work. Students are frequently late for class, and the teacher does not require a late pass, contrary to school policy. The rule is subsequently enforced, and the students arrive on time. Modeling, Shaping, and Cueing Modeling is also known as observational learning. Albert Bandura has suggested that modeling is the basis for a variety of child behavior. Children acquire many favorable and unfavorable responses by observing those around them. A child who kicks another child after seeing this on the playground, or a student who is always late for class because his friends are late is displaying the results of observational learning. Figure 1.4 Modeling "Of the many cues that influence behavior, at any point in time, none is more common than the actions of others." (Bandura, 1986, p. 45) Figure 1.4 . In this picture, the child is modeling the behavior of the adult. Children watch and imitate the adults around them; the result may be favorable or unfavorable behavior! Shaping is the process of gradually changing the quality of a response. The desired behavior is broken down into discrete, concrete units, or positive movements, each of which is reinforced as it progresses towards the overall behavioral goal. In the following scenario, the classroom teacher employs shaping to change student behavior: the class enters the room and sits down, but continue to talk after the bell rings. The teacher gives the class one point for improvement, in that all students are seated. Subsequently, the students must be seated and quiet to earn points, which may be accumulated and redeemed for rewards. Cueing may be as simple as providing a child with a verbal or non-verbal cue as to the appropriateness of a behavior. For example, to teach a child to remember to perform an action at a specific time, the teacher might arrange for him to receive a cue immediately before the action is expected rather than after it has been performed incorrectly. For example, if the teacher is working with a student that habitually answers aloud instead of raising his hand, the teacher should discuss a cue such as hand-raising at the end of a question posed to the class.

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