Time saving has been used as a method of early

This preview shows page 18 - 21 out of 38 pages.

Time-saving, has been used as a method of early detection to improve situational awareness, especially in the context of bioterrorism.Loosely applied to surveillance of school and work absenteeism, calls to 911, and OTC medications.
Ex. a sharp increase of sales in antidiarrheal meds in a community can indicate an outbreak of gastroenteritis.When to investigate:When a population experiences an unusual increase in a specific diseaseDetecting predictable patternsNaturally occurring diseases fairly predictableOutbreaks due to bioterrorism may not be predictable STEPS IN AN INVESTIGATIONConfirmthe existence of an outbreakVerifythe diagnosis/define a caseEstimatethe number of casesOrientdata collected to person, place, and timeDevelopand evaluatehypothesisInstitutecontrol measures and share findings.Environmental Health Routes of exposure, steps in environmental assessment, exposure history, environmental protection, risk reduction, MSDS, IPREPARE, home safety Exposure Types:ChemicalCarbon monoxide, metals, pesticidesBiological agentsBacteria, viruses, rickettsia, molds, plant and animal contact, fungi, allergens (dust mites/roaches)Physical agentsInjurious exchange of energy: heat, cold, radiation, noise, vibration, falls, vehicle crashes, crush injuries, violencePsychosocial factorsReal or perceived threats: living in fear, stress, panic, anxietySteps in Environmental SafetyFour phasesHazard identification, the first step of an exposure risk assessment, seeks details to input from government information portals about the exposure. This is determining whether a chemical is known to be associated with negative health effects (in animals or humans)A dose-response assessment, the second step, is based on experiments and looks for the correlation between an increase in harmful effects and the increase in the quantity of a substance. An exposure assessment,the third step, is the consideration of the level, timing, and extent of the exposure.--Estimating how much and by which route of entry the chemical might enter the human body
A risk characterization, the last step, pulls together the information gathered in the previous steps to determine the health risk of those affected. Individual Environmental Exposure History: I PREPAREI → Investigate Potential ExposuresHave you ever felt sick after coming in contact with a chemical, such asa pesticide or other substances? Do you have any symptoms that improve when you are away from your home or work?P → Present WorkAre you exposed to solvents, dusts, fumes, radiation, loud noise, pesticides, other chemicals? Do you know where to find material safety data sheets for chemicals with which you work? Do you wear PPE? Are work clothes worn home? Do coworkers have similar health problems?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture