Immediately after any needle-stick (sharps) injury, the person injured should—as soon as it is safe to do so—hand over his/her duties to another provider and wash the area with plenty of soap and water. Antisep- tics or caustic agents, such as bleach, should not be used. Flush any exposed mucous membranes with plenty of water. The clinic should have a system to quickly report any needle-stick (sharps) injuries to the nearest health facility that provides post-exposure prophylaxis services so that this can be given to the injured health care worker according to the national guidelines.
93 Study guide for OET © IRS Group 2018 Part C In this part of the test, there are two texts about different aspects of healthcare. For questions 7-22, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.. Text 1: Non-invasive prenatal testing: the new era in reproductive medicine In some countries, it is routine practice to offer pregnant women screening for foetal chromosomal and structural abnormalities, and, if serious anomalies are diagnosed, the option of terminating the pregnancy. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities commenced in the 1960s and was initially restricted to women whose pregnancies were considered to be of increased risk because of an obstetric history of aneuploidy or advanced maternal age. Over the past five decades, prenatal chromosome screening (PCS) has been expanded to encompass the entire obstetric population. However, the commonly used aneuploidy screening tests are plagued by high false-positive rates, typically 4%–5%. Confirmation of an increased screening risk for aneuploidy involves diagnostic tests such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, each associated with low but definite risks of pregnancy loss. Many women are reluctant to proceed with a diagnostic test after a positive aneuploidy screening result, and the ability to assess foetal genetic material without directly sampling the amniotic fluid or placenta has long been a goal of prenatal diagnosis. The recent development of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), a high-level screening test using cell-free foetal DNA, offers the opportunity to markedly reduce the requirement for invasive testing while potentially also increasing detection rates of chromosomal anomalies, in particular of trisomy 21. In addition, NIPT may be offered earlier in pregnancy than standard aneuploidy screening and diagnostic techniques. Although initially used in pregnancies at high risk for aneuploidy, recent data indicate that NIPT is also a robust screening test in lower-risk pregnancies. NIPT is now the most sensitive and specific screening test for the common trisomies, with detection rates greater than 99% for trisomy 21 and false-positive rates of less than 0.5%. The performance characteristics for trisomies 13 and 18 and the sex chromosome anomalies are lower than for trisomy 21, although the sensitivity is still typically greater than 90%.
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