PHARM 1 FINAL - other stuffs .docx

Stimulation of the stretch receptors in the uterus

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stimulation of the stretch receptors in the uterus and bladder, intense pain fiber stimulation, direct stimulation by various chemicals  Maintaining homeostasis in the GIT – A series of local reflexes within the GI tract helps maintain homeostasis within the  system  Overstimulation can result in: Constipation or Diarrhea  Peptic Ulcer Disease –  Erosions in the lining of the stomach and adjacent areas of the GI tract  S&S: gnawing, burning pain, often occurring after meals  Cause: H pylori bacterial infection Nausea and Vomiting  Emetics –  Cause vomiting  No longer recommended for poison control at home Antiemetic’s –  Decrease or prevent N/V Centrally acting or locally acting  CONTROLLING BLOOD GLUCOSE  Function of the Pancreas Gland –  Endocrine gland: produces hormones in the islets of Langerhans  Exocrine Gland: releases sodium bicarbonate and pancreatic enzymes directly into the  common bile duct to be released into the small intestine. Neutralizes the acid chyme from the  stomach and aids in digestion  Insulin –  Hormone produced by beta cells of the islets of Langerhans  Action: released into circulation when levels of glucose around these cells rise.  Stimulates synthesis of glycogen, the conversion of lipids into fat stored in the form of adipose  tissue, and the synthesis of needed proteins from amino acids  Diabetes Mellitus –  Complex disturbances in metabolism  Affects carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism  Clinical Signs: hyperglycemia, glycosuria  Disorders associated with Diabetes – Atherosclerosis: plaques in the vessel linings  Retinopathy: vision loss in the eyes as the vessels in the eyes narrow or close 
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Neuropathies: motor and sensory change in the feet and legs as o2 is cut off  Nephropathy: renal dysfunction related to changes in the basement membrane of the  glomerulus  Classes of DM –  Type 1: insulin dependent. Rapid onset. Seen in younger adults Connected to a viral destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas You must take insulin   Type 2: Non-insulin dependent. Usually occurs in mature adults  Has slow and progressive onset  Signs of dangerously high glucose levels –  Fruity breath, dehydration, kussmauls, changes in LOC  Hypoglycemia –  Blood sugar concentration lower than 40 mg/dL Causes: starvation, lowering the blood sugar too far with treatment of hyperglycemia 
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  • Spring '16
  • Loren Martin
  • Histamine, Hyperglycemia

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