mechanisms and private property abolished controls on many prices on January 1

Mechanisms and private property abolished controls on

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mechanisms and private property (abolished controls on manyprices on January 1, 1990, and reformed the monetary system witha “big bang”)4.Hungary’s communist boss, Janos Kadar, had permitted liberalization ofplanned economy after a 1956 uprising in exchange for political obedienceand continued Communist controla)In May 1988, in an effort to retain power by granting modestpolitical concessions, the party replaced Kadar with a reformcommunist (opposition groups rejected progress)b)In the summer of 1989 the Hungarian communist party agreed tohold elections in 1990c)Welcoming Western investment and moving rapidly towardmultiparty democracy, Hungary’s Communists now enjoyedconsiderable popular supportd)They had believed that they could defeat the opposition in theupcoming elections and in an effort to strengthen their support athome and put pressure on East Germany’s Communist regime, theHungarians opened their border to East Germany (iron curtain)5.Tens of thousands of dissatisfied East German “vacationers” beganpouring into Hungary, crossed into Austria as refugees, and continued onto resettlement in thriving West Germany
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Subhash Patcha[2016]4BAP European History:1945­Presenta)The flight of East Germans led to the rapid growth of ahomegrown protest movementb)Intellectuals, environmentalists, and Protestant ministers took thelead, organizing huge candlelight demonstrations and arguing thata democratic but still socialist East Germany was both possible anddesirable (“stayers” failed to convince the “leavers”)c)In an attempt to stabilize the situation, the East Germanygovernment opened the Berlin Wall in November 1989, and peopledanced atop that grim symbol of the prison state; East Germany’saging Communist leaders were swept aside, and a reformgovernment took power and schedule free elections in thefollowing months following the change6.In Czechoslovakia, communism died in December 1989 in an outing ofCommunist bosses in only ten days; the so­calledVelvet Revolutiongrewout of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and adissident playwright turned moral revolutionary, Vaclav Havel; protestersforced the Communist into a power­sharing arrangement which quicklyresulted in the resignation of the communist government and the assemblyelected Havel president7.Only in Romania was revolution violent and bloody (Communist dictatorNicolae Ceausescua)The dictator had long combined Stalinist brutality with stubbornindependence from Moscow; faced with mass protests inDecember, Ceausescu, alone among eastern European bosses,ordered his ruthless security forces to slaughter thousandsb)After Ceausescu’s forces were defeated, the tyrant and his wifewere captured and executed by a military court; a coalitiongovernment emerged from the fightingB. The Disintegration of the Soviet Union1.As 1990 began, revolutionary changes had triumphed in all but twoeastern European states—tiny Albania and the vast Soviet Union (questionof Soviet Union persisted)a)
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