During exercise heart rate is filling time diastole

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During exercise heart rate is ↑ filling time (diastole) is ↓ heart still gets adequate blood supply due to dilation of coronary arteries via adenosine production by cardiac muscle 93
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Ischemia and Infarct Blocked coronary artery Plaque / clots / cholesterol Decreased blood flow to heart muscle Poor muscle function Stroke Volume Cardiac Output Transient – Ischemia Permanent damage – infarct
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Ischemia and Infarct Treatment: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) Vasodilators Angioplasty Reduce risk factors Diet Exercise Smoking
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Figure 6-16: Bypass surgery of coronary blocked arteries. (Antonia Reeve/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
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Advantages of Exercise Bigger Heart Stroke Volume Resting Heart rate can Coronary artery diameter blood flow Collateral Blood vessels ischemia
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Arterial Hypertension Causes include : Smoking Stress Diet Age / genetics Increased Arterial pressure LV pressure must exceed this to open aortic valve and eject blood Shorter ejection time Stroke Volume Cardiac Output
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Heart Failure Compromised Heart Valve stenosis Ischemia or Infarct Hypertension Stroke Volume Heart compensates with heart rate heart rate means : Shorter filling times - stroke volume Faster fatigue of heart muscle contraction and stroke volume
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Heart Failure Eventually: Muscle is so fatigued it barely contracts  stroke volume Blood volume Excess blood backs up into lungs – Pulmonary edema
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Congestive Heart Failure CHF Symptoms: Gradual dyspnea and tachypnea Tachycardia Neck vein distention Edema in ankles and lower legs Right-sided congestion of liver and spleen Left-sided congestion of lungs
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Ventricular Assist Device
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Pulmonary Hypertension RV Pr > LV Pr Eg. Pulmonary stenosis Septum inverts Myocardial compression coronary blood flow
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Cardiac Aneurysm Bulge of ventricular wall Muscle weakness Congenital or from infarct
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