Connections between the vno and the 25 brain are

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connections between the VNO and the (25) brain are separate from those of the main olfactory system, whose processing of odorants triggers sensations of smell. But while the VNO does process many animal pheromone signals, not all animal phero- (30) mones work through the VNO. Conversely, not all chemical signals transmitted via the VNO quality as pheromones. For example, garter snakes detect a chemical signal from earthworms—one of their favorite foods—via (35) the VNO, and they use this signal to track their prey. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q7 It can be inferred from the passage that in classifying pheromones as a type of odorant, the researchers referred to in line 15 posit that A. pheromones are perceived consciously B. most pheromones are processed by the VNO C. most chemical signals processed by the VNO are pheromones D. Pheromone perception does not occur exclusively between mem- bers of the same species. E. pheromones do not always elicit a specific behavioral or physio- logical response answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q8 According to the passage, the fact that pheromones are processed by the VNO in many animal species has been taken as evidence of which of the following? A. The accessory and main olfac- Tory systems are not separate B. Odorants and pheromones are not distinct types of chemicals. C. Odorants and pheromones both elicit a specific behavioral
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response. D. Pheromones do not trigger con- scious sensations of smell. E. Pheromones aid animals in track- ing prey. Answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q9 The primary purpose of the pas- sage is to A. compare and contrast the ways in which the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory systern process chemicals. B. summarize the debate over the role the vomeronasal organ plays in odor perception C. present some of the issues involved in the debate over what constitutes a pheromone D. propose a new definition of pheromones based on recent research E. argue that pheromones should be classified as a type of odorant answer: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 Lawmaker: Raising taxes is not the only means of reducing government debt. The government’s stockpile of helium is worth 25 percent more, at current market prices, than the debt accumulated in acquiring and storing it. Therefore, by selling the helium, the government can not only pay off that debt but reduce its overall debt as well. Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends? A. The government has no current need for helium. B. Twenty-five percent of the debt the government has accumulated in Stockpiling helium is not an insignificant portion of the government’s Total debt. C. It is not in the lawmaker’s interest to advocate raising taxes as a Means of reducing government debt. D. Attempts to sell the government’s helium will not depress the market Price of helium by more than 25 percent.
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E. The government will not incur any costs in closing its facilities for stockpiling helium.
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