Many people had no knowledge that would help but

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Many people had no knowledge that would help, but after all the other pieces had been placed on the motorcycle, there was only one piece left, only one possible place to go. The blue light was logically constrained. Logical constraints are often used by home dwellers who undertake repair jobs. Suppose you take apart a leaking faucet to replace a washer, but when you put the faucet together again, you discover a part left over. Oops, obviously there was an error: the part should have been installed. This is an example of a logical constraint. The natural mappings discussed in Chapter 3 work by providing logical constraints. There are no physical or cultural principles here; rather, there is a logical relationship between the spatial or functional layout of components and the things that they affect or are affected by. If two switches control two lights, the left switch should work the left light; the right switch, the right light. If the orientation of the lights and the switches differ, the natural mapping is destroyed. CULTURAL NORMS, CONVENTIONS, AND STANDARDS Every culture has its own conventions. Do you kiss or shake hands when meeting someone? If kissing, on which cheek, and how many times? Is it an air kiss or an actual one? Or perhaps you bow, junior four: Knowing What to Do: Constraints, Discoverability, and Feedback 131 person first, and lowest. Or raise hands, or perhaps press them together. Sniff? It is possible to spend a fascinating hour on the Internet exploring the different forms of greetings used by different cultures. It is also amusing to watch the consternation when people from more cool, formal countries first encounter people from warmhearted, earthy countries, as one tries to bow and shake hands and the other tries to hug and kiss even total strangers. It is not so amusing to be one of those people: being hugged or kissed while trying to shake hands or bow. Or the other way around. Try kissing someone s cheek three times (left, right, left) when the person expects only one. Or worse, where he or she expects a handshake. Violation of cultural conventions can completely disrupt an interaction. Conventions are actually a form of cultural constraint, usually associated with how people behave. Some conventions determine what activities should be done; others prohibit or discourage actions. But in all cases, they provide those knowledgeable of the culture with powerful constraints on behavior. Sometimes these conventions are codified into international standards, sometimes into laws, and sometimes both. In the early days of heavily traveled streets, whether by horses and buggies or by automobiles, congestion and accidents arose. Over time, conventions developed about which side of the road to drive on, with different conventions in different countries. Who had precedence at crossings? The first person to get there? The vehicle or person on the right, or the person with the highest social status? All of these conventions have applied at one time or another. Today, worldwide
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