IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

In 2009 the us companies aes energy storage and a123

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In 2009 the US companies AES Energy Storage and A123 Systems installed a 12 MW, 3 MWh Li-ion battery at AES Gener's Los Andes sub- station in the Atacama Desert, Chile (Figure 3-3). The battery helps the system operator manage fluctuations in demand, delivering frequency regulation in a less expensive and more responsive manner than transmission line upgrades. In addition, because the project replaces unpaid reserve from the power plant, AES Gener will receive payment for its full output capacity by selling directly to the electric grid. Utility’s emergency power supply Important facilities, such as power stations, substations and telecommunication stations, need power sources for their control installations with high power quality and reliability, since these are the very facilities which are most needed for power in the case of an interruption. EES systems for this application are mostly DC sources and supported by batteries. Historically lead acid batteries have been used for this purpose. Utility’s off-grid systems (isolated grids) In the case where a utility company supplies electricity in a small power grid, for example on an island, the power output from small-capacity generators such as diesel and renewable energy must also match with the power demand. On Hachijo-jima (island), where about 8 000 people live, TEPCO uses NaS batteries with diesel generators and a wind power station to meet the varying demand. For off-grid photovoltaic systems in the power range (50 W -) 1 kW - 500 kW lead acid batteries for EES are commonly used. Figure 3-3 – Li-ion battery supplying up to 12 MW of power at Los Andes substation in Chile (A123, 2009)
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45 3.1.2 Consumer use (uninterruptable power supply for large consumers) 1) Suppress peak demand and use cheaper electricity during peak periods, i.e. save cost by buying off-peak electricity and storing it in EES. The result is load leveling by time- shifting. 2) Secure a reliable and higher-quality power supply for important factories and commercial facilities. Example: consumers’ use of NaS batteries Figure 3-4 shows the applications of NaS batteries installed in the world with their respective power capacities. The systems used exclusively for load levelling (LL) account for almost half the total, and installations for load levelling with the additional functions of emergency power supply or stand-by power supply represent another 20 % each. However, the need for storage linked to renewable energy, as explained in section 3.2, is growing. Figure 3-4 – NaS battery applications and installed capacities (NGK, IEC MSB/EES Workshop, 2011)
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46 S E C T I O N 3 Markets for EES 3 % 2 % 19 % 7 % 5 % 64 % Factory equipment Water supply / sewage systems Schools & research institutions Office buildings Hospital facilities Substations Figure 3-5 – Locations of NaS systems in the TEPCO service area (TEPCO) Figure 3-6 – Worldwide installed storage capacity for electrical energy [epr10] [doe07] 127,000 MW ~1,500,000 MWh over 99 % of the total storage capacity Pumped Hydro Compressed Air Energy Storage 440 MW 3,730 MWh Sodium Sulphur Battery 316 MW 1,900 MWh
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