Blacks hispanics and women are beginning to vote in

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Blacks, Hispanics, and Women are beginning to vote in their respective interests, power is flowing away from public institutions and into the hands of giant bureaucracies and influential private interest groups. Voters, after all, have only one of several possible means of influencing decision makers, i.e., their vote. 3. Prestige Prestige refers to the power to impress or influence. It differs from power in that it is based less on political position. Prestige correlates with charisma. A prestigious person has a reputation based on brilliance, achievements, or on character. Robertson contends that there is much less stratification in terms of prestige in the United States than there is in terms of wealth and power. He suggests that while prestige ranking is obvious, Americans treat each other remarkable well when compared to other countries and societies. 6
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Social Class V. Social Mobility Social mobility generally refers to the movement from one social class to another. Upward social mobility is the movement to a higher social class. Horizontal social mobility is the movement to a better socioeconomic status within the same social class. Downward social mobility is the movement to a lower social class. Sociologists have classified social mobility into three categories. A. Intergenerational mobility This refers to changes in social class from one generation to another (movement up or down the social hierarchy by family members). For example, recent immigrants may live their lives in the working class, but their sons and daughters may rise up to the upper middle class. Or another example here would be a family where the father is a trucker and the child becomes a doctor. Marriage is another example. This may be one of the quickest ways to move up the ladder. B. Exchange Mobility This refers to people in one area move up, while people in another area move down. Individuals change places with one another. For example, high-level incompetents will lose their jobs and lower-strata people will be promoted to take their place. A balance is maintained. For example, many people with computer jobs may move up the social ladder, but an equal number of people who lost high paying factory jobs might move down the ladder. It is important to remember that people can move up or down the social ladder. This is more common in high tech societies. C. Structural Mobility This refers to movements up or down the social class ladder due to structural changes in society, not individual efforts. An example would be individuals who have made millions in new Internet companies. When the structure itself changes, everyone's position changes. Structural change is an important explanation for much of the twentieth century improvement in the financial well being of many in American society. As the U.S. became industrialized, the occupational structure itself was transformed. Children, therefore, could not stay in the same occupational position as their parents.
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