may exploit the experience gained from the relatively successful HIVAIDS

May exploit the experience gained from the relatively

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may exploit the experience gained from the relatively successful HIV/AIDS campaigns to develop new low-carbon campaigns at different levels of the school system. The key tasks for policy makers and internation-al agencies is thus to position sustainability in the mainstream of the national curricula. However, at the same time they should help to develop sector- specific vocational training that promotes green solutions in energy, transport, resource extraction, etc. Th e vocational and higher education sectors should also play a key role in low-carbon develop- ment as they can help build the links to relevant productive and service sectors. In Bangladesh and China, the presence of a skilled workforce gained through vocational training was key to the devel- opment of extensive solar PV industries (UNDE-SA, 2011, p. 146). We thus see an opportunity to connect human resource development to low -carbon innovation priority areas, for example, in rural electrification missions that depend on extensive training for op-eration and maintenance. In China, the extensive wind power industry is significantly constrained by shortages in operation and maintenance personnel (Lema, 2013). The transformation from high- carbon systems is associated with a reorientation of educational systems, as the labour force needs to be upgraded and reskilled. This task calls for policy cooperation among the educational sector, the enterprise sector, and the labour market. Ultimately, workers will need transitional support in the process of sector labour mobility as unemployment may rise in, for example, fossil fuel provision. Retraining is key to the success of the process. 5.2.4 Access to finance This report has focused mainly on the innovation aspects of low-carbon development. It has not dealt at length with financing, which is a major issue in climate change, not the least in the context of poor countries with limited economic resources for financing investment in green innovation capabili- ties. However, the mobilisation of finance for in- novation in and through appropriate programmes is a prerequisite for a transformation toward low- carbon LICS. The funds commanded by govern- ments in developing countries and donor organisa- LOW-CARBON INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 89
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tions are very limited compared to the investment required for green transformation. Therefore, while direct financial contributions may be important, the indirect role played by these organisations is most important. This is true particularly for the role of convenor when seeking to match funds from the private sector or development banks with national initiatives and programmes. Th ere are a range of private financial sources, such as venture capital and green funds, but due to the uncertainty involved, their actual investments in developing countries have been modest (UND- SESA, p. 154). There is a need for public-private partnership initiatives for co-financing. This might encompass the involvement of pension funds in the wealthy world and the establishment of dedicated
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