Headaches and skeletal muscle spasms respiratory

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Headaches and skeletal muscle spasms Respiratory failure Rabies - wild animal bite causing a neurological disaster Viral, transmitted by bite of a rabid animal, or transplantation of contaminated tissues Virus travels along peripheral nerves to CNS Headache and fever, nervous hyperittitability, sensitivity to touch, and seizures Virus also travels to the salivary glands causing difficulty swallowing and a fear of fluids Respiration failure results in death Meningitis - symptoms: systemic symptoms of infection (temp, high fever, aching) neurological symptoms, meningeal irritation symptoms Different age groups are susceptible to different causative organisms (may be secondary to other infections) Children & Young Adults Neisseria meningitides or meningococci Classic meningitis pathogen Frequently carried in the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers Spread by respiratory droplets Occurs more frequently late winter and early spring Neonates Escherichia coli is the most common causative organism Usually in conjunction with a neural tube defect, premature rupture of the amniotic membranes, difficult delivery Young Children
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Most often due to Haemophilus influenzae More often in the autumn or winter Older Adults Streptococcus pneumonia- major cause in this age group Diagnostic Tests: examination of CSF (obtained by lumbar puncture) and identify the causative organism Treatment: Aggressive antimicrobial therapy, specific treatment measure for ICP and seizure, glucocorticoids (for the reduction of cerebral inflammation and edema) and vaccination for meningitis Cerebral Aneurisms – the omg headache - most of them happen without any other symptoms and you end up dying- sometimes caused by long-term hypertension Localized weakness in the wall of an artery Cerebral aneurysms frequently multiples: usually at the points of bifurcations (circle of Willis) or berry aneurysms Often aggravated by hypertension Initially small and asymptomatic Slow bleed causes vascular type headaches Rupture leads to sudden fatal increase in ICP and death Signs & symptoms Loss of visual fields or visual disturbances Headaches and photophobia Intermittent periods of dysfunction Nuchal rigidity due to meningeal irritation Vomiting, seizures, loss of consciousness in case of massive rupture rapidly followed by death Treatment: surgical treatment before the rupture, and antihypertensive drugs Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) -CVA (stroke) is an infarction of brain tissues that results from lack of blood- caused by an occlusion of a cerebral blood vessel or the rupture of a cerebral vessel -5 minutes of ischemia causes irreversible nerve cell damage Central area of necrosis develops; all function is lost Surrounded by an area of inflammation; this zone will regain function following healing Types of CVA’s 1. Occlusion of an artery by an atheroma : often develops in large arteries
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