Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

Important to open dna so that it is available for

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important to open dna so that it is available for transcription factors to bind o histone modification can cause opening of the nucleosomes such that DNA can be read 2 types of modification o high acetylation will open up chromatin + low methylation = low transcription o methylation histomes causes tighter interaction between dna and histone protein → decreases transcription o high acetylation + high methylation = high transcription DNA & Histone Modifications o several enzymes that regulate histome modification in a gene specific fashion o addition of acetyl groups to histones will facilitate transcription of the gene
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histone acetyltransferase (HAT) adds acetyl group to histone (lead to increase in transcription) histone deacetylase (HDAC) removes acetyl group (condensing DNA) addition of (HMT) or removal of (HDM) of methyl groups to specific histones also modulates transcription (leads to condensed chromatin) these enzymes are modulated by neurotransmission (or drugs) important for understanding long term understanding gene expression processes such as learning and memory critical for cellular identity Protein Synthesis & Cell Differentiation/Specialization o all cells of an organism are initially derived from a single cell and thus share the same genes (DNA) o but cell can perform different biological function through selective protein expression o much of the cell-type specific gene expression is controlled by epigenetic regulation o but back to our mRNA... mRNA transported to cytoplasm o specialized “chaperon: proteins serve to bring mRNA out of nucleus to cytoplasm; ensure other molecules do not enter or exit nucleus once mRNA is in cytoplasm, it can then associate with protein that have enzymatic function → ribosomes → o Translation occurs on Ribosomes → large complex of proteins allow rna to be docked to protein complex, reading system for code in RNA, joins together amino acids that for complimentary translated version of the info in RNA contains to major subunits small subunit docks rna, large subunit joins together RNA o transfer RNA (tRNA) that has amino acid attached to it. Large ribosome subunit attracts specific amino acid containing tRNA that has a complimentary codon to mRNA o mRNA → polypeptide Coding of Genetic Information: Codons o codon = function unit of DNA (RNA) code; 3 nucleotides o 64 unique codons that only code for 20 amino acids, redundancy. o within the sequence of nucleic acids, there is info o amino acids are important, of 20 amino acids used for protein synthesis, they can have diff functional properties Amino Acids in proteins o classes of amino acids: have diff properties & contribute to overall properties of protein o side chain unique to amino acids used to make proteins → grouped based on their properties nonpolar/polar/ionized Peptide Bonds o proteins (or polypeptides) are comprised of 2-1000s of amino acids joined together via a common method o
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