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Lecture 2 Nervous System Cells and their Proteins

O dna tightly coiled around histone protein

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o DNA tightly coiled around histone protein → nucleosome complex of histone with associated chormatin o it is opened up by influencing proteins o attachment of small molecules to histones (proteins important for the condensing chromosomes) dna is opened up by influencing proteins itself, (opening nucleosomes) can modify proteins important to open dna so that it is available for transcription factors to bind o histone modification can cause opening of the nucleosomes such that DNA can be read 2 types of modification o high acetylation will open up chromatin + low methylation = low transcription o methylation histomes causes tighter interaction between dna and histone protein → decreases transcription o high acetylation + high methylation = high transcription o several enzymes that regulate histome modification in a gene specific fashion o addition of acetyl groups to histones will facilitate transcription of the gene
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histone acetyltransferase (HAT) adds acetyl group to histone (lead to increase in transcription) histone deacetylase (HDAC) removes acetyl group (condensing DNA) addition of (HMT) or removal of (HDM) of methyl groups to specific histones also modulates transcription (leads to condensed chromatin) these enzymes are modulated by neurotransmission (or drugs) important for understanding long term understanding gene expression processes such as learning and memory critical for cellular identity o all cells of an organism are initially derived from a single cell and thus share the same genes (DNA) o but cell can perform different biological function through selective protein expression o much of the cell-type specific gene expression is controlled by epigenetic regulation o but back to our mRNA. .. mRNA transported to cytoplasm o specialized “chaperon: proteins serve to bring mRNA out of nucleus to cytoplasm; ensure other molecules do not enter or exit nucleus once mRNA is in cytoplasm, it can then associate with protein that have enzymatic function → ribosomes → o Translation occurs on Ribosomes → large complex of proteins allow rna to be docked to protein complex, reading system for code in RNA, joins together amino acids that for complimentary translated version of the info in RNA contains to major subunits small subunit docks rna, large subunit joins together RNA o transfer RNA (tRNA) that has amino acid attached to it. Large ribosome subunit attracts specific amino acid containing tRNA that has a complimentary codon to mRNA o mRNA → polypeptide Coding of Genetic Information: Codons o codon = function unit of DNA (RNA) code; 3 nucleotides o 64 unique codons that only code for 20 amino acids, redundancy. o
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o DNA tightly coiled around histone protein nucleosome...

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