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Release from proactive interference working memory

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release from proactive interference Working Memory: Idea of STM as just storage is too narrow. Working memory brings together storing and active processes: defined as: a limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension learning and reasoning Differences from STM:
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o 1) STM is concerned with storing information , Working Memory is concerned with manipulation of information o 2) Short term memory consists of a single component, Working memory consists of multiple compnents Baddeley’s working memory model: o Working memory is dynamic and made of 3 separate components which allow for multiple simultaneous processes – a 4 th has recently been added (episodic buffer) 1) Phonological Loop 2) Visuospatial sketch pad 3) Episodic Buffer 4) Central Executive o 1) Phonological Loop: Verbal and Auditory info Consists of 2 components: a) Phonological store: limited capacity that holds info for only a few seconds b) Articulatory rehearsal process: responsible for rehearsal that can keep items in the phonological loop from decaying Evidence: 3 phenomena support idea of a specialized language working memory 1. Phonological similarity effect – confusion of letters or words that sound similar 2. Word length effect – memory for short words better than long words – (side note: people typically remember the number of items they can pronounce in 2 seconds – pg 133) 3. Articulatory suppression – repetition of an irrelevant sound interferes with rehearsal (ex – adding ‘the’ inbetween every word on a word list makes it much harder), and ALSO eliminates the word length effect – both long and short words are hard with ‘the’ before o 2) Visuospatial sketch pad Visual and Spatial info Involved with process of visual imagery – the creation of visual images in the mind in the absence of a physical visual stimulus Capable of mental rotation – rotating an image in your mind (recall experiment with blocks turned to different angles and asking if it would be possible to rotate one to match the other) Can be disrupted: Experiment with F’s, holding image of letter in your mind WHILE pointing is very hard because BOTH are visuospatial tasks o 3) Episodic Buffer Can store info (increase capacity) and is connected to LTM (so are the other 2 components tho, this thing isn’t too well worked out yet) Added later to explain how working memory can hold more than what would be expected from the phonological loop or visuospatial sketchpad. Binds types of info into larger meaningful units
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Take home message: Increase storage and communicates with LTM o 4) Central Executive Where the major work of working memory occurs Pulls info from LTM Coordinates activity of other components by focusing on specific parts of a task and switching attention from one part to another Decides how to divide attention – Baddeley called this the attention controller Ex)
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Christopher Reinemann
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