Group one, who believed they had control: 20% had panic attackPanic Station- MuseCognitive theory: control and panic disorderoCognitive therapiesIdentify irrational thoughts (keep diaries- self monitoring)Ex. Catastrophic thoughts about body sensationsChallenge thoughts:Identify how thought is irrationalQuestion irrational thoughtReplace with more rational, accurate thoughtsEx. Reinterpret body sensations (I’m just breathing hard because I exercised, etc.)oBehavioral theoriesClassical conditioning: pair two stimuli together, person learns to anticipate second stimulus while in presence of first stimulusWatson and Little AlbertUnconditioned stimulus (UCS): loud noiseUnconditioned response (UCR): Albert whimpersConditioned stimulus (CS): (paired with UCS): white rat
Conditioned response (CR): after enough pairings, the CS (white rat) alone causes Albert to whimper.oMore behavioral theoriesOperant conditioning: consequences of a behavior impact the likelihood of behavior occurring againThe behavior of avoiding whatever is feared is reinforced (lowered anxiety), meaning avoidance behaviors are likely to increaseNegative reinforcement: after a behavior, remove unpleasant situation, this increases initial behaviorModeling: persons see someone else react with extreme fear (e.g. child sees parent fear snake)oBehavioral therapy: systematic desensitizationClient ranks their fear in a hierarchy: from least feared to most feared (e.g. imagine picture of a dog, then dog in room, then pet a dog)Client is taught relaxation techniquesClient is exposed to what is lowest on hierarchy and uses relaxationOnce client no longer feels anxious to that lowest ranking object, they move up the list to the next ranked objectVery effective: 80-90%Exception: for blood-injection type, must have them tense muscles until they feel blood rushing to their face (to prevent the lowering of heart rate)ExampleFear of crowdsHierarchy1. Picture2.3 people3.Family dinner4. Classroom5. Subway6.Mosh pitoBehavioral therapy: floodingClient learns relaxation techniquesIntensive exposure to the feared object until all anxiety is goneSupport is importantAs effective as other treatments, works even quickerProblem is, many clients won’t do it.
Eating Disorders10/23/18Anorexia nervosaoRefuse to maintain a body weight within 15% of healthy weight for one’s heightoIntense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat (self esteem rests entirely on their body shape)oOne of the following:Distortions of body imageUndue influence of body shape on self-evaluationDeny seriousness of low weightoInformal symptoms:Amenorrhea- women stop menstruatingChronic fatigueDevelop elaborate rituals around foodoMajor physical problems8% dieHeart failure, irregular heart beat, really slow heart rateExcessive expansion of stomachKidney damageWeak immune systemoCourse of the diseaseLifetime prevalence= 1%90-95% femaleOnset 15-19 yearsCourse varies greatly1/2 fully recovered after 10 year followup