Even individual atoms have these forces o a temporary

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Even individual atoms have these forces. o A temporary dipole on one molecule or atom can induce another temporary dipole on a nearby atom or molecule (see pictures above). o Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only H and C. As a general rule the carbon-hydrogen covalent bond is NOT polar. Therefore hydrocarbons have ONLY dispersion forces! o Examine pentane and its isomers at the bottom of page 438. Pentane, BP = 36 °C Isopentane, BP = 28 °C Neopentane,BP = 9.5°C - Here the surface area of the molecule is very important to the intermolecular interactions among like molecules. Linear molecules have a greater surface area than branched molecules. 2. Dipole-Dipole Forces : Stronger than London forces, dipole forces exist in any polar molecule . Any polar covalent bond has a partial separation of charge. In a substance with dipole forces, the partially negative atoms are attracted to the partially positive atoms.
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- Many organic substances contain carbonyl compounds that contain a carbon with a double bond to oxygen. This is a very common dipole-dipole attraction in organic chemistry. 3. Hydrogen Bonding : The next strongest IMF and weaker than electrostatic forces. When a molecule contains a hydrogen atom attached to a VERY electronegative atom (N, O, and F ONLY!!) it has the ability to form a hydrogen bond. The H has a partial positive charge and the electronegative atom has a partial negative charge. - Hydrogen bonding gives water its high boiling point and very high surface tension (the ‘beading’ of water). H-bonds are the ‘glue’ that - makes water stick to itself -
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