Decreased production of blood clotting factors

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Decreased production of blood-clotting factors Impaired glucose/glycogen metabolism Impaired conversion of ammonia to urea Decreased inactivation of hormones and drugs – Drug dosages must be carefully monitored to avoid toxicity Decreased removal of toxic substances Reduction of bile entering the intestine: impairs the digestion and absorption Backup of bile in the liver: leads to obstructive jaundice Blockage of blood flow through the liver: Leads to portal hypertension Congestion in the spleen: increases hemolysis Inadequate storage of iron and vitamin B12 Congestion in intestinal walls and stomach: impair digestion and absorption Development of esophageal varices: leads to hemorrhaging Development of ascites, an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity: Causes abdominal distension and pressure Initial manifestations Fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, anemia, diarrhea Dull aching pain may be present in upper right abdominal quadrant Advanced Cirrhosis Ascites and peripheral edema Increased bruising
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Esophageal varices: these may rupture, leading to hemorrhage, and circulatory shock Jaundice, encephalopathy S/S: Fatigue, anorexia, indigestion, weight loss, ascites General edema, esophageal varices, hemorrhoids, splenomegally, anemia Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased bleeding, purpura Hepatic encephalopathy, tremors, confusing, coma Gynecomastia, impotenance, irregular menses Jaundice and pruritis Pancreatitis : Inflammation of the pancreases that results in auto digestions of the tissues May be acute of chronic (acute is emergency) (chronic clears up) Pancreas destruction may progress into tissues surrounding the pancreas Substances released by necrotic tissues lead to widespread inflammation hypovolemia and circulatory collapse Primary symptom: Severe epigastric of abdominal pain radiating to the back Risk factors: Alcohol and smoking Celiacs Disease: A defect in the intestinal enzyme that leads to gluten intolerance Crohn Disease: Interference with digestion and absorption through the whole intestine or whole bowel- Creates adhesions between loops Ulcerative Colitis : Inflammation starts in the rectum and progresses through the colon -Leads continual inflammation and up to 12 stools per day containing blood and mucus accompanied by cramping pain Appendicitis - abdominal pain everywhere and then localized in right lower quadrant if the pain stops then that means it ruptured and pain will return again
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