By 1860, the use of tobacco as a medical agent had virtually ended. However, people continued to use tobacco for pleasure. Prevalence of Tobacco Use In the U.S. today, cigarette smoking is by far the most common way to use tobacco. Cigarette smoking demands the most attention because it is the most toxic way to smoke tobacco, followed in order by cigar and pipe smoking. Smoking in the United States The peak of smoking among Americans was in 1963. In 1964, the U.S. Public Health Service published a book that detailed the hazards of cigarette smoking. The highest rates of current cigarette use are among 18-25 year olds. Also individuals who are not enrolled in college full-time are more prone to smoking than those who are enrolled in college full-time. There is some alarm over the resurgence in popularity of the “hookah” or “Water pipe” among college students and other young people. o Smoking from a hookah is a threat to health, because the smoke from a water pipe contains nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide. Generally males are more prone to smoking than woman at all ages. Out of whites, blacks, and Hispanics, white individuals have the highest rates of smoking at all ages. Initiation of Smoking Once nicotine dependence is initiated in adolescence, it tends to persist into the adult years. Close to 90% of the people who die from smoking related causes in the U.D. began smoking when they were adolescents. Moreover, the younger the age at which a person starts to smoke, the harder it seems to be able to quit later. From the biological side, research suggests a major reason why smoking tends to being in adolescence is that teens’ brains are more sensitive to the rewarding (reinforcing) effects of nicotine than are the brains of older individuals. Psychological factors also may combine with environmental variables to affect smoking initiation.
o Adolescents who are more “novelty seeking” (they tend to be impulsive, to take risks, and to have a high need for stimulation) are more receptive to tobacco company advertisements. Pharmacology of Nicotine Sites of Action Nicotine stimulates the same receptors that are sensitive to acetylcholine (ACH) and therefore is a cholinergic agonist drug. ACH stimulates both the autonomic and central nervous systems. Nicotine is called a biphasic drug because it stimulates ACH receptors and low doses but it retards neural transmission at higher doses. Pharmacokinetics Absorption Nicotine can be absorbed through most of the body’s membranes. Nicotine poisoning : a consequence of nicotine overdose characterized by palpitations, dizziness, sweating, nausea, or vomiting. Nicotine absorption depends on both the site of absorption and how the nicotine is delivered.
- Fall '15
- David Warner
- cigarette smoking