Final Study Guides pharm.docx

Nephrotoxicity kidneys creatinine clearance most

Info icon This preview shows pages 4–7. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nephrotoxicity (kidneys) Creatinine clearance (most accurate, must collect urine for 24 hours) – want this to be high Serum creatinine (easiest – want this to be low) Hepatotoxicity (liver) AST/ALT 14. Why are many pediatric dosages weight based (why not 1 dose for all like adult meds)? Pediatric dosages are based off of body surface area (weight and height) Size in children is highly variable so there is not one set dosage that will work for pediatrics (a therapeutic dose for one child might be toxic in another) 15. What are the pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly? Metabolism Liver declines with age and or abuse Excretion Kidney function declines with age and or abuse Drug accumulated secondary to reduced renal excretion is the most important cause of adverse drug reactions in the elderly Adherence Cost, forgetfulness, polypharmacy (having to take many drugs), misunderstanding instructions, transportation 16. How does pharmacogenetics affect possible drug prescriptions? Pharmacogenetics: Study of how genetic variations can affect individual responses to drug. Metabolism is the most common mechanism by which genetic variations modify drug responses – most differences are with the P450. This is most important for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index
Image of page 4

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
17. What are peak and trough levels? When should they be drawn? Peak – when the level of the drug is highest in the body (should be kept below toxic range) Drawn 30 minutes to an hour after drug administration Trough – when the level of the drug is lowest in the body (should be kept above MEC) Draw 30 minutes before the next administration or infusion (additional) Peak= highest level; should be kept below toxic range Troughs= lowest level; should be above the minimal effective concentration Monitor them because this is how we know our plateau is in range. To reduce the fluctuations: Continuous infusions Depot preparations- injections Reduce both size of each dose and the dosing interval (instead of 2 grams every 24, give 1 gram every 12 hours) 18. What is Beers list? Potentially inappropriate medications for elderly patients because they have been shown to have a high incidence of adverse effects in the elderly populations. Does not take into account drug-drug interactions 19. What are the 7 rights? Right medication to the right patient via the right route at the right time in the right dosage with right documentation and right reason. 20. What is the difference between generic and trade drugs? Active ingredient is the same The difference between generic and trade drugs is the fillers that can effect bioavailability of the medication. Companies can not make the generic until the original patent has expired = exclusivity. Patents= typically 5-7 years initially; however, the company can add 3 additional years if the drug has new indications.
Image of page 5
Patent = 7 years is usually granted for a drug that tx orphan disease.
Image of page 6

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern