yes How do changes in H and OH change the chemistry of a cell Changes in

Yes how do changes in h and oh change the chemistry

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yes How do changes in H+ and OH- change the chemistry of a cell?
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Changes in hydrogen and hydroxide concentration affect the pH level Which can affect the structure of proteins and cause them to denature Hydronium and hydroxide are highly reactive What is the pH scale? 0-14 What is an acid and a base? acid- a substance that increases the H+ concentration of a solution base- decreases the H+ of a solution What is acid precipitation? How is it caused? Refers to rain, snow, or fog, with pH lower than 5.2 Caused by pollutants mixing with water in the air and can severely damage ecosystems Chemistry of Carbon How does carbon enter the biosphere? Via photosynthesis Do organic compounds come from living organisms only? *Examples? No, organic compounds can also be synthesized in labs Describe the concept of mechanism. Vitalism vs mechanism Vitalism- idea that organic compounds could only be synthesized from living organisms and inorganic could only be synthesized in labs Mechanism - idea that all observable phenomena can be explained by natural What are some qualities of carbon that allow it to form diverse molecules? Has 4 valence electrons and can form up to four bonds with other atoms Can bond with itself What is a carbon skeleton? What form can it take? Carbon skeletons are the backbone of most simple organic compounds Skeletons are comprised of a chain of carbon atoms Can take many forms: rings, helix, double helix, etc. What factors affect the shapes of organic molecules? What are the potential consequences of this? Length Double bonds (cis or trans) Make molecules shorter The types of bonds and electrons minimizing repulsion arrangements of orbitals affects shape (tetrahedral, flat, etc)
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Potential consequences : shape affects function What are hydrocarbons? Where are they commonly found? How do they interact with Water? Hydrocarbons- organic molecules that consist only of H and C Commonly found in fats/oils Release energy when reacted with water What are isomers? Do isomers with the same molecular formula have the same function? Isomers- compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures, Therefore different properties/ functions Isomers with the same molecular formula do NOT have the same function because a molecules shape determines its function and isomers can have varying shapes Structural isomer- similar structure different function (i.e. estrogen & testosterone) Geometric Isomer- spatial arrangement of atoms differs Cis vs trans bond - atoms on same side vs different side Enantiomers- mirror images of each other What are functional groups? How do they affect the properties of organic molecules? Functional group - small molecules that give larger molecules unique properties Most commonly involved in reactions The number and arrangement of the functional groups give molecules unique properties Carboxyl group found in fatty acid Carbonyl group in sugars Macromolecules What are the classes of large biological molecules? Carbs Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids What classes of large biological molecules are considered to be macromolecules? Why?
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  • Spring '08
  • Dr.Vomachka
  • Atom, Chemical bond

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