behaviours including better health throughout life greater independence during

Behaviours including better health throughout life

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behaviours
Cultural Bias and Stereotypes in Intelligence Testing -Racial groups differ in their average scores on traditional intelligence tests. What explains this finding? -An example of a culturally unfair question: Caesar is to salad as __________ is to brandy. Progressive Matrices Test - Emphasizes abstract, nonverbal skills, less culture bias Is Human Intelligence Increasing? Flynn effect - rise in average IQ scores over time throughout the world - Intelligence test scores have increased over time, however other standardized test scores have dropped. Intelligence - Genetic and/or Environmental Factors Genetic factors - Twin studies - Higher correlation between identical twins’ intelligence scores (+.86) than fraternal twins (+.60) - Identical twins reared apart show a correlation of (+.75) - Reaction range - the upper and lower level of intelligence made possible by a child’s genetic nature. Environmental factors Family and home environment - School influences - Both a cause and a result of intelligence - Intelligence is related to success in school - Schooling improves mental abilities. Cultural influences - Definition of intelligence varies from culture to culture
- The expression of intelligence is tied to the survival needs of a culture Occupational influences - People of higher intelligence tend to work in more complex jobs, but complex work may itself improve intelligence. Variation Within and Between Groups - Environment contributes to variation between the groups (same seeds different environments) - NOTE: Average variation between groups cannot be applied to individuals within each group! Group Differences in IQ Scores - High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income - Aboriginal Canadians score, on average, 15 to 20 points lower on intelligence tests than their non-Aboriginal contemporaries - Aboriginal students are twice as likely to drop out of high school - Public policy aimed at making more equitable resources available throughout society would lead to more similar intelligence test scores across different groups. Does Environmental Enrichment Make a Difference? Head Start - Head Start is a US government- funded preschool program that serves children who come from families below the poverty line. - Aims to enhance children’s chances for success in school and beyond. Does Head Start work? - It produces short-term increases in cognitive skills, but only for impoverished children - It increases children’s readiness for school, enhances emotional intelligence, reduces school dropouts, and correlates to decreases in later criminality. What Happens in The Brain? - General intelligence is associated with the number of neurons in the frontal lobes - Brain speed - how fast the brain responds to stimuli - Electroencephalogram (EEG) a test of neural activity - Individuals who perceive and respond to information more quickly tend to score higher on intelligence tests
What Happens in the Brain during Intelligence Tests?

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