100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 36 - 40 out of 47 pages.
Cultural Bias and Stereotypes in Intelligence Testing -Racial groups differ in their average scores on traditional intelligence tests. What explains this finding? -An example of a culturally unfair question: Caesar is to salad as __________ is to brandy. Progressive Matrices Test -Emphasizes abstract, nonverbal skills, less culture bias Is Human Intelligence Increasing? Flynn effect- rise in average IQ scores over time throughout the world -Intelligence test scores have increased over time, however other standardized test scores have dropped. Intelligence - Genetic and/or Environmental Factors Genetic factors -Twin studies -Higher correlation between identical twins’ intelligence scores (+.86) than fraternal twins (+.60) -Identical twins reared apart show a correlation of (+.75) -Reaction range -the upper and lower level of intelligence made possible by a child’s genetic nature. Environmental factors Family and home environment -School influences -Both a cause and a result of intelligence -Intelligence is related to success in school -Schooling improves mental abilities. Cultural influences -Definition of intelligence varies from culture to culture
-The expression of intelligence is tied to the survival needs of a culture Occupational influences -People of higher intelligence tend to work in more complex jobs, but complex work may itself improve intelligence. Variation Within and Between Groups -Environment contributes to variation between the groups (same seeds different environments) -NOTE: Average variation between groups cannot be applied to individuals within each group! Group Differences in IQ Scores -High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income -Aboriginal Canadians score, on average, 15 to 20 points lower on intelligence tests than their non-Aboriginal contemporaries -Aboriginal students are twice as likely to drop out of high school -Public policy aimed at making more equitable resources available throughout society would lead to more similar intelligence test scores across different groups. Does Environmental Enrichment Make a Difference? Head Start -Head Start is a US government- funded preschool program that serves children who come from families below the poverty line. -Aims to enhance children’s chances for success in school and beyond. Does Head Start work? -It produces short-term increases in cognitive skills, but only for impoverished children -It increases children’s readiness for school, enhances emotional intelligence, reduces school dropouts, and correlates to decreases in later criminality. What Happens in The Brain? -General intelligence is associated with the number of neurons in the frontal lobes -Brain speed- how fast the brain responds to stimuli -Electroencephalogram (EEG) a test of neural activity -Individuals who perceive and respond to information more quickly tend to score higher on intelligence tests
What Happens in the Brain during Intelligence Tests?