This new population was welcomed by the industry

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and dangerous conditions for their health. This new population was welcomed by the industry because of the competition for jobs, and thus owners could lower wages and increase their own wealth. When the government realized the rapidly created social problem due to the increase of population, politicians feared an outbreak of rioting could lead to another revolution. In order to judge the exact extent of the problem, politicians ordered a census to assess whether the urbanization of Paris was leading to a higher standard of living, as politician’s believed. These statistics would be the evidence of social evolution. Different professionals were interested in obtaining statistics for the government. Mathematician J.B.J. Fourier handed out a census questionnaire including questions leading to insight of Parisian’s social habits, including more information than merely births, marriages, and deaths. Rene Villerme, a physician interested in evidence on health care of citizens noted dietary changes and consequently, death rates of children, proving the relationship between poor nourishment and early death. He found that the percent of crime, illness, and prostitution was higher in areas of open sewers. Toxicity reports were formulated to be used by many of the other statisticians at the time. Even more statistics were taken on conditions of prisoners, their medical condition, and the chance for rehabilitation back into society. Villerme also showed
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