Modernization growth centered o ideal of what

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Modernization (Growth centered) o Ideal of what development is trying to achieve. o Following the footsteps of the West o Process of change toward types of social, economic and political systems that have developed in W. Europe and N. America from the 17 th century to the 19 th and have spread to other European countries and in the 19 th and 20 th centuries to S. American, Asian, and African continents. o In Technology: change from traditional techniques toward application of scientific knowledge o In agriculture: evolution from subsistence toward commercial production. Cash crops, purchase of non-agricultural products in market, agricultural wage labor. o In industry: transition from use of human and animal power towards industrialization proper or men aggregated at power-driven machines working for monetary return with products of the manufacturing process entering into a market based on a network of exchange relations. o Ecologically: movement from farm and village toward urban centers . o DISTINCTIVE QUALITY 1: Western countries have undergone industrial
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revolutions economic development and hence economic growth. high per capita income. o Economic development Increase in productive capacity and labor productivity in terms of technology Efficient tools/machines, knowledge of nature, research and capacity to develop improved technologies, etc etc Increase in productive capacity in terms of labor to make more productive/efficient ways to produce a greater quantity and a more diverse range of goods/services. o Economic growth Continued increase in size of an economy (GDP) Sustained increase in output over a period. o Modernization implies complete transformations in many aspects of life brought about my development through industry and industrialization o Industrialization Increased percentage of GDP from industrial sector outputs Change in social structure, organization, scale, concentration and ways of thinking towards giving primacy to productivity and efficiency. Complex division of labor w/ changes in social structure and organization Advanced technology Industrial sector becomes more important in comparison to agricultural sector o Industry Production of all material goods not derived directly from land Mining, energy and manufacturing sectors Technical and social change: process that uses advanced technology and a complex division of labor that is linked to other forms of production through combining a wide range of raw materials, skills, and sources of energy. o Since the collapse of the soviet union, modernization, industrialization, and capitalism have always gone together. o DISTINCTIVE QUALITY 2: Western countries are liberal democracies Combine prosperity derived from industrialized economies with political system based on parliamentary representative democracy. Modernization often implies democratic political institutions and the trickle down of capital to other sections of society.
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