Psychological benefits Increased self-confidence and bonding with infant Decreased risk for postpartum depression if nursing is going well However, during weaning… Cost savings?
WEIGHT LOSS? Breastfeeding costs 750 kcal/d 750 kcal/d needed to produce 525 kcal in milk Maternal intake rarely 750 kcal/d higher? YET, breastfeeding women do not lose significantly more weight Might depend on exclusivity? Many individual differences Jarlenski et al., 2014
COST SAVINGS? Breastfeeding is only considered “free” if a women’s time is not considered Pumping is expensive… Electric pump = $250 Storage bags = $15/100
INFANTS Nutritional benefits Optimal nutrition for the first 6 months – still needs Vitamin D supplement Meets fluid needs Meets protein needs without overloading kidneys Contains soft, easily digestible curd Provides generous amounts of the right lipids Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are present Enhanced availability of minerals
INFANTS Immunological benefits and lower infant mortality Infection protection Unclear how protects against SIDS Fewer acute illnesses and reductions in chronic illnesses? Relationships between breastfeeding, asthma, eczema, and food allergies are unclear
BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING INTO TODDLERHOOD Comfort when experiencing big emotions Continued bonding Continued protection against illness (antibodies) Fluids and energy intake when sick “Insurance policy” for nutrition (however, make sure child is consuming adequate table food) There are a few downsides/nuances: Might be more painful for mother Child might be more demanding
BARRIERS TO BREASTFEEDING
FACTORS RELATED TO DECISION TO BREASTFEED Emotional factors: Rewarding personal experience Psychological factors: Embarrassment, stigma Economic: Lower cost? Practical considerations: Less time consuming(?), no night-time bottles Return to work issues Cultural factors: Acceptance by society
BARRIERS TO BREAST FEEDING Lack of support by family Father and maternal grandmother Lack of support by medical staff Lack of knowledge Perceived insufficient milk supply – most common reason Physical problems – soreness, infection Returning to work
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ASPECTS Important Players: Health Care System The workplace The community National Policy Peers Family Baby’s Father
STIGMA There is a lot of stigma around breastfeeding, on both sides… From: ?
THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
RETURNING TO WORK Improving the work environment Private place to pump Place to store milk Improved maternity leave Onsite day care Reduced costs to employers due to lower health care costs, decreased absenteeism, enhanced productivity, and improved employee satisfaction.
NEW YORK STATE LAWS At work: Nursing mothers are required to have (unpaid) break time to pump for up to 3 years
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- Spring '14