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The value of k depends on temperature as given by

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The value of k depends on temperature as given by Arrhenius: k = Ae - E a /RT Reaction Order Rates of Reactions and Rate Constants First-order reaction A B rate = k [A] Second-order reaction A + B C + D rate = k [A][B] A + A B rate = k [A] 2 Units of first-order rate constant k is time -1 Units of second-order rate constant k is M -1 time -1 Units of the rate is M time -1
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3 Rates of Reactions and Rate Constants The rate-limiting step controls the overall rates of the reaction Rate of a reaction = number of collisions per unit of time fraction with sufficient energy fraction with proper orientation X X Transition State Versus Intermediate Transition states have partially formed bonds Intermediates have fully formed bonds intermediate intermediate
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4 Electrophilic Addition of HBr to 2-Butene The rate-limiting step controls the overall rates of the reaction
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5 Arrows in Organic Chemistry: Moving Electrons Reaction Mechanisms Polar reactions involve electrostatic interactions Positive species Negative species Are electron poor Are electron rich Called an electrophile Called a nucleophile A Lewis acid A Lewis base LUMO HOMO
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6 Electron-rich atoms or molecules ** nucleophiles ** are attracted to electron-deficient atoms or molecules ** electrophiles ** • Addi%ons (1+1=1) A + B = C • Elimina%ons C→A + B (reverse of addi%on) • Subs%tu%ons A‐B + C‐D → A‐C + B‐D H 2 O + CH 3 Br
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