Hypothesis #3: How did the early Islamic empire expand?-The Islamic empire expanded through war while attempting to keep things the least gruesome.
Document C: Fred Donner1.(Sourcing) What type of document is this? What is its purpose?-This is an excerpt from a book which challenges some of the common knowledge aboutearly islamic conquest.2.(Close Reading) What was the purpose of the gift-giving that the author describes?-Its purpose was to keep people loyal to them so that they would not be overthrown.3.(Corroboration): How is the account of Muslim expansion in Document C different from the accounts in Document A and Document B?-While document A depicts gruesome war and document B depicts a treaty for invasion,document C shows how they bribed their army and leaders who cooperated.4.Do you think this document is a reliable source for determining how the caliphates expanded in the 7thand 8thcenturies? Why or Why not?-This source might be reliable because it comes from a historian at the university of Chicago, even if he specializes in this research most of it has to come from secondary or primary sources which might have bias.Hypothesis #4: How did the early Islamic empire expand?-The early Islamic empire expanded through war, they attempted to keep the people of the land they were conquering uninvolved through treaties. They also had bribes for their army and cooperating leaders to prevent being overthrown.