responses to delinquency the family, school and community. Prior research has linked these institutions to elicit the most significant effect on delinquency. First, I will examine the family as an institution, and the effects of family structure, focusing on how different family structures are often accompanied by forms of strain. Second, I will identify common institutional responses to delinquency in the education system, correlating to overall community socioeconomic status having an influence in the overall environment and involvement of schools. This infers an unequal experience navigating the education system, based on SES. Finally, I will address the Community as an institution, investigating delinquency levels in relation to individual communities socioeconomic status, relating this to delinquency and gang levels.Family Structure In the study of delinquency, arguably one of the most influential institutions in shaping the experiences of adolescents is the family. A substantial body of previous literature has linked forms of family strain to delinquency during the transitional period of adulthood, shown in research by: (Draper and Hancock. 2011), (Kuhl et al. 2016), (Mahatmya, Duhita and Lohman. 2011),(Prasad S. K. and Kumar. 2017), (Singer. 2014), and (Tapia. 2010). Recently, the transitionto adulthood for many adolescents has been delayed or extended by a period defined as “emerging adulthood”. This is implemented by an increase in heterogeneity and inequality that suggests not all groups in the population are likely to have the same opportunities, abilities or motivations; creating multiple “normative” developmental pathways to adulthood, delaying transitions and extending delinquency, linking this to individual socioeconomic status (Kuhl et al. 2016).
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS & DELINQUENCYVarying family structures are often accompanied by different resources for individuals to navigate the transition to adulthood. This is shown in multiple ways, as research by (Tapia. 2010)has related individuals transitions to adulthood to the chances of limiting delinquency to adolescence, or continuing delinquency throughout adulthood. Individual’s transitions to adulthood differ by levels of socioeconomic status and the timing and occurrence of events basedon these events, considered to be transition points in adolescence and play a role predicting future delinquency; obtaining a stable job, getting married, having a child, and completing education, are likely to vary by family structure and neighborhood socioeconomic status, to the extent that they do, these class differences in transitions potentially play a role in explaining involvement in delinquency in emerging adulthood. Research by Kuhl et al. (2016), has shown “levels of nonviolent delinquency, getting drunk, and smoking marijuana in adulthood are significantly lower in respondents who had low family SES in adolescence. Similarly, the average levels of delinquency and substance use are almost identical at parallel levels of neighborhood advantage”. Ana and Hancock (2011), link the effects of parental bereavement, in addition to the risks
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