CLEP Principles of Management 1

A business should offer different incentives to

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A business should offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfill each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy (see below). Managers should recognize that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker. According to Abraham Maslow, the most elevated type of need is Self- actualization and can only be considered when physiological and social needs have been achieved.
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The bottom of the pyramid has physiological needs--things like hunger and thirst. This was supposed to explain causes of motivation; needs higher on the pyramid would not serve as motivators unless lower levels were satisfied. 22. Physiological needs like hunger and thirst, a reasonable workload; things such as a comfortable work station or adequate break time would satisfy this need as well Safety needs such as physical safety & health, an adequate salary, job security, benefits , salary and a safe working environment. Social needs such as love and friendship, pleasant interactions with coworkers, interactions with a congenial manager or with suppliers outside of the firm Esteem needs such as recognition and respect (anything else that validates the employee's self-worth such as a promotion or recognition) Self-Actualization (Job autonomy, stimulating project or flexible work schedule). challenging project 23. 24. Clayton Alderfer's ERG theory -similar to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Has only 3 needs: existence, relatedness, & growth. Existence needs are similar to what Maslow defined as basic needs. For example food, water, and air. Relatedness needs concern satisfactorily relating to others. I.E., a person motivated by good relations with co-workers. Growth needs concern self-development, creativity and competence. Growth needs represent the intrinsic desires people have to attain their maximum potential. This is similar to Maslow's esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Clayton Alderfer's frustration-regression principle states that previously satisfied lower level needs will reemerge if a higher level need is not satisfied. Like Maslow, Alderfer purports that unmet needs motivate behavior, and that lower level needs, once satisfied, lessen in importance. However, if higher level needs are not met, an individual will regress back down the hierarchy, as described by the frustration- regression principle. 25. 26. THEORY X AND THEORY Y 27. Douglas McGregor - one of the forefathers of management theory and one of the top business thinkers of all time. He was a social psychologist who became the President of Antioch College. His book The Human Side of Enterprise had a profound influence on the management field, largely due to his Theory X and Theory Y.
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