52 pieter dhondt and sirje tamul© 2011 Koninklijke Brill NVattention again to teach university courses that dealt with local inter-ests and considered the university responsible first and foremost for the vocational training of the future Baltic German regional elite.41Craffström’s Discordant Relations with Teaching StaffIn fact, this reflex to appeal to professors from within the Baltic German region was reinforced by the policy of the central authorities in St Petersburg. Not only foreign scientific publications, but foreign scien-tists themselves experienced difficulties, even from the 1820s, entering the country. At the same time, Russian scientists were restricted from leaving the country. Frightened by Europe’s revolutions, authorities gradually forbid Russians to travel abroad, an order that hit teachers and students especially hard.42Firstly, Alexander I prohibited studies at specific universities (Heidelberg, Jena, Giessen, Würzburg). From 1822, universities could no longer matriculate students who had been studying abroad.43His successor, Nicholas I, continued this policy and published a ukasein 1831 which restricted the distribution of pass-ports in order to travel abroad to Russian subjects. Home tutors and university professors were allowed to be recruited from abroad only through an official invitation, after special permission was obtained from the foreign affairs department of the State Council of Russia.