39 as a consequence of the reactionary policy of

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39As a consequence of the reactionary policy of Russification which followed the revolutions of 1848, the University of Dorpat went on the defensive and tried to emphasise its role as a university in the ser-vice of their own Baltic German nation. The university, for instance, appointed a number of new Baltic German professors.40A similar development can be seen among students. As the leading role of the Baltic German nobility was challenged from the middle of the nine-teenth century, students increasingly decided to remain in their home region after their education. Indeed, during these years large protests by professors could still prevent the implementation of several reforms proposed by the Russian government, but the gradual change in atmo-sphere at the university could not be stopped. The progressive, primar-ily scholarly oriented German professors were increasingly replaced by conservative, Baltic German colleagues who wanted to pay more 38Malle Salupere, “F. G. von Bunge ja Tartu kultuuriajakirjad [F. G. von Bunge and a review of culture related magazines of Tartu]”, Commentationes Litterarum Societa-tis Esthonicae35 (2006): 89.39Eduard Osenbrüggen, “Tartu Ülikool [University of Tartu]”, in: Sergei Issakov (ed.), Mälestusi Tartu ülikoolist 17.-19. sajand [Memoirs of the University of Tartu in the 17th-19th centuries](Tallinn: Eesti Raamat 1986): 172-180.40Trude Maurer, Hochschullehrer im Zarenreich. Ein Beitrag zur russischen Sozial- und Bildungsgeschichte (Beiträge zur Geschichte Osteuropas 27) (Köln: Böhlau 1998).
52 pieter dhondt and sirje tamul© 2011 Koninklijke Brill NVattention again to teach university courses that dealt with local inter-ests and considered the university responsible first and foremost for the vocational training of the future Baltic German regional elite.41Craffström’s Discordant Relations with Teaching StaffIn fact, this reflex to appeal to professors from within the Baltic German region was reinforced by the policy of the central authorities in St Petersburg. Not only foreign scientific publications, but foreign scien-tists themselves experienced difficulties, even from the 1820s, entering the country. At the same time, Russian scientists were restricted from leaving the country. Frightened by Europe’s revolutions, authorities gradually forbid Russians to travel abroad, an order that hit teachers and students especially hard.42Firstly, Alexander I prohibited studies at specific universities (Heidelberg, Jena, Giessen, Würzburg). From 1822, universities could no longer matriculate students who had been studying abroad.43His successor, Nicholas I, continued this policy and published a ukasein 1831 which restricted the distribution of pass-ports in order to travel abroad to Russian subjects. Home tutors and university professors were allowed to be recruited from abroad only through an official invitation, after special permission was obtained from the foreign affairs department of the State Council of Russia.

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