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Learning about the brain lesion studies brain damage

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Learning about the Brain Lesion studies Brain damage patients Electroencephalogram (EEG)
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Measures the electrical activity of the brain Look for patterns of activity across large areas Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Develop of brain tissue Study tissue and function correlation Position Emission Tomography (PET) Measures brain’s consumption of glucose Study brain function Sensation – detection of stimuli Perception – attaching meaning to stimulation Psychophysics with them Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time Sensory Adaptation Reduced sensitivity after constant stimulation Ex. Clothes, water in the pool, etc. Vision Light = photons
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Every photon has a wavelength Eyes able to see only a tiny fraction of electromagnetic spectrum Visible spectrum = 400nm – 700nm VIBGYOR The Eye Cornea, pupil, iris Aqueous/vitreous humor, lens, retina Optic nerve, fovea/macula, sclera Retina – 3 layers Rods – periphery of retina; black, white, and gray; faint light, dark adaptation Cones – part of rod layer; center of retina; see fine detail and color  communicate with next layer Ganglion cells – transmit visual info directly to the brain Optic chiasm Each eye is “divided” Lateralization Color Vision Two theories of color vision Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory 3 types of cones   red, blue, green doesn’t explain after images Opponent-process theory
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Visual processing includes neurons with on/off switches  red/green, blue/yellow Ganglion cells process color through opposing activation Commonly thought that both theories are correct Color Bundles – typically red/green Hearing Sound – movement of air molecules b/c of vibration Often hits one ear first   localization Frequency – hump to hump   pitch Amplitude – size of waves   decibels  Ear – outer, middle, and inner Pinnae, auditory canal Tympanic membrane; malleus, incus, stapes; auditory nerve Cochlea, basilar membrane, organ of Corti Semicircular ducts (balance) Both are chemical senses Both have receptors that are regularly replaced Taste buds   bitter, sweet, salty, sour Smell (olfaction)   olfactory sensory neurons   olfactory bulb
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Skin Senses Touch Mix of pressure, warmth, cold, and pain Only pressure has an identifiable receptor Pain Nociceptive pain   associated with skin damage Explained by “gate theory”   spinal chord allows or denies pain
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Learning about the Brain Lesion studies Brain damage...

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