Re organization blind example adapt after

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Re-organization (blind example) Adapt after hemispherectemy Greater in children “phantom fingers” Learning about the Brain Lesion studies Brain damage patients Study functional & structural changes Electroencephalogram (EEG)
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Measures the electrical activity of the brain Look for patterns of activity across large areas Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Use magnetic signal & radio waves Develop of brain tissue Study tissue and function correlation Position Emission Tomography (PET) Measures brain’s consumption of glucose Study brain function Sensation & Perception Sensation – detection of stimuli Perception – attaching meaning to stimulation Psychophysics Studies the relationship b/w physical aspects of stimuli & our psychological experiences  with them Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time Sensory Adaptation Reduced sensitivity after constant stimulation Ex. Clothes, water in the pool, etc. Vision Light = photons
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Every photon has a wavelength Eyes able to see only a tiny fraction of electromagnetic spectrum Visible spectrum = 400nm – 700nm VIBGYOR The Eye Cornea, pupil, iris Aqueous/vitreous humor, lens, retina Optic nerve, fovea/macula, sclera Retina – 3 layers Rods – periphery of retina; black, white, and gray; faint light, dark adaptation Cones – part of rod layer; center of retina; see fine detail and color Bipolar cells – retrieve info from rods & cones   communicate with next layer Ganglion cells – transmit visual info directly to the brain Optic chiasm Each eye is “divided” Lateralization Color Vision Two theories of color vision Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory 3 types of cones   red, blue, green doesn’t explain after images Opponent-process theory
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Visual processing includes neurons with on/off switches  Opposite colors must turn on & off in opposition red/green, blue/yellow Ganglion cells process color through opposing activation Commonly thought that both theories are correct Color Bundles – typically red/green Hearing Sound – movement of air molecules b/c of vibration Often hits one ear first   localization Frequency – hump to hump   pitch Amplitude – size of waves   decibels  Ear – outer, middle, and inner Pinnae, auditory canal Tympanic membrane; malleus, incus, stapes; auditory nerve Cochlea, basilar membrane, organ of Corti Semicircular ducts (balance) Smell & Taste Both are chemical senses Both have receptors that are regularly replaced Taste buds   bitter, sweet, salty, sour Smell (olfaction)   olfactory sensory neurons   olfactory bulb
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Skin Senses Touch Mix of pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
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