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Therefore, the tasks of sociological analysis are to reveal the structures of society in the conceptual language of social science; and specifically, to explain how human actors manage to produce and reproduce society, under constraintsCriticism: Eclecticism, inconsistency, lack of empirical utility, excessive emphasis on individual agencyPositivism – The scientific study of social life conducted in hope of discovering and stating general principles that apply across a wide variety of times, places, and settings (Auguste Comte)Mulinariand Sandellclaim that ‘late modern theory’ is possible only through the reinvention of the heterosexual matrix, the private sphere as the location of women/gender, reproduction coupled to biology, and gender as an intimate relation between women and menElchardusnotes that Giddens’ analysis leads to a view of modernity as a highly individualized social orderParentificationParentification – A child’s adoption of adult family roles by providing instrumental or emotional support for their parentsHypothesis 1 –Parentification leads to long-term problems like depression, anxiety, and impaired relationshipsHypothesis 2 –Parentification is more prevalent in immigrant families due to the adolescent-parent acculturation gapImmigrant adolescents acculturate faster allowing them to socio-culturally outperform their parentsEmotional Parentification – Family peace brokering, consoling, etc.Instrumental Parentification –Family decision making, financial control, adult behaviour, etc.FindingsImmigrant children are more parentified than native born childrenMarital dissatisfaction of mothers has no effect on immigrant parentificationLanguage brokeringand the acculturation gappredicts both kinds of parentificationInstrumental parentification led to self-efficacy in both adolescent groupsHigh levels of emotional parentificationled to exhaustion in the immigrant group, but not in the native born group
Chapter 2: Material SettingsUrban Life vs. Rural LifeUrban life is much different from rural life1.Populations of cities are much larger and denser than those of small towns or villages2.Technologies central to city life, such as subways, are unlikely to be found in a rural area or a small town, since they were developed to deal with large populations3.Built environment of a city conflicts with the natural environment in many harmful ways, unlike the built environment of smaller communitiesFunctionalism’s Approach to PopulationDemography– The study of human populations including their growth and decline through births, deaths, and migrationThomas Malthus, one of the founders of demography, was the first to speculate that population issues might harm humanityThis is a recognizable piece of functional analysisArgues that available food increases additively (arithmetically) while population increases exponentially (geometrically)