Therefore the tasks of sociological analysis are to

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Therefore, the tasks of sociological analysis are to reveal the structures of society in the conceptual language of social science; and specifically, to explain how human actors manage to produce and reproduce society, under constraints Criticism : Eclecticism, inconsistency, lack of empirical utility, excessive emphasis on individual agency Positivism – The scientific study of social life conducted in hope of discovering and stating general principles that apply across a wide variety of times, places, and settings (Auguste Comte) Mulinari and Sandell claim that ‘late modern theory’ is possible only through the reinvention of the heterosexual matrix, the private sphere as the location of women/gender, reproduction coupled to biology, and gender as an intimate relation between women and men Elchardus notes that Giddens’ analysis leads to a view of modernity as a highly individualized social order Parentification Parentification – A child’s adoption of adult family roles by providing instrumental or emotional support for their parents Hypothesis 1 – Parentification leads to long-term problems like depression, anxiety, and impaired relationships Hypothesis 2 – Parentification is more prevalent in immigrant families due to the adolescent-parent acculturation gap Immigrant adolescents acculturate faster allowing them to socio-culturally outperform their parents Emotional Parentification – Family peace brokering, consoling, etc. Instrumental Parentification – Family decision making, financial control, adult behaviour, etc. Findings Immigrant children are more parentified than native born children Marital dissatisfaction of mothers has no effect on immigrant parentification Language brokering and the acculturation gap predicts both kinds of parentification Instrumental parentification led to self-efficacy in both adolescent groups High levels of emotional parentification led to exhaustion in the immigrant group, but not in the native born group
Chapter 2: Material Settings Urban Life vs. Rural Life Urban life is much different from rural life 1. Populations of cities are much larger and denser than those of small towns or villages 2. Technologies central to city life, such as subways, are unlikely to be found in a rural area or a small town, since they were developed to deal with large populations 3. Built environment of a city conflicts with the natural environment in many harmful ways, unlike the built environment of smaller communities Functionalism’s Approach to Population Demography – The study of human populations including their growth and decline through births, deaths, and migration Thomas Malthus , one of the founders of demography , was the first to speculate that population issues might harm humanity This is a recognizable piece of functional analysis Argues that available food increases additively (arithmetically) while population increases exponentially (geometrically)

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