O schools are one of the institutions most prone to

Info icon This preview shows pages 10–12. Sign up to view the full content.

o Schools are one of the institutions most prone to reinforce dominant cultural attitudes An analysis of stories in 134 children’s readers written before 1970 found that male characters outnumbered female characters three to one o Institutional supports for prejudice are often unintended and unnoticed o Archer and others (1983) By examining 1750 photographs of people in magazines and newspapers Discovered that about two-thirds of the average male photo Less than half of the average female photo Was devoted to the face Researchers respect that the visual prominence given the faces of men and the bodies of women both reflects and perpetuates gender bias o Films and television programs also embody and reinforce prevailing cultural attitudes What are the motivational sources of prejudice? - Frustration and aggression: The scapegoat theory o Pain and frustration (the blocking of a goal) often evoke hostility o When the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown Often redirect our hostility displace aggression o Competition is an important source of frustration that can fuel prejudice When two groups compete One group’s goal fulfillment become the other group’s frustration o Realistic group conflict theory The theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources Corresponding ecological principle Gause’ law Maximum competition will exist between species with identical needs o Frustrated people express relatively high levels of blatant prejudice (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995; Pettigrew & others, 2008) When interests clash prejudice may be the result - Social identity theory: Feeling superior to others o Self-concept Our sense of who we are Personal identity Our sense of our personal attributes and attitudes Social identity (Chen & others, 2006) The “we” aspect of our self-concept
Image of page 10

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

The part of our answer to “who am I?” that comes from our group memberships o Social identity theory (Turner & Tajfel) We categorize We find it useful to put people, ourselves included, into categories We identify We associate ourselves with certain groups (our ingroups) gain self-esteem by doing so Ingroup Us A group of people who share a sense of belonging A feeling of common identity We compare We contrast our groups with other groups (outgroups) with a favorable bias toward our own group Outgroup Them A group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup o We evaluate ourselves partly by our group memberships Having a sense of “we-ness” strengthens our self-concepts Seek not only respect for ourselves Also pride in our groups (Smith & Tyler, 1997) Seeing our groups as superior Helps us feel even better o Lacking a positive personal identity People often seek self-esteem by identifying with a group When people’s personal and social identities become fused When the boundary between self and group blurs They become more willing to fight or die for their group (Swann & others, 2009)
Image of page 11
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '16

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern