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e.Examine the role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in solid organ rejection.
called HLA antigens. The histocompatibility genes are responsible for the coding of these proteins and are located on chromosome 6. The location of the histocompatibility genes is knownas the major histocompatibility complex. Tissue typing occurs prior to most transplants to identify the HLA of both the recipient and the donor to match them. Class I antigens are HLA-A,HLA-B, HLA-C and are found in most human cells. They are primarily responsible for organ rejection. Class II antigens are found on macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, B cells and T cells. Some diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis are associated with the presence of a specific HLA antigen. Persons with HLA-B27 antigen are at an increased risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis.Graft rejection is classified as hyperacute, acute, or chronic. Hyperacute– immediate, when circulation to the graft is restored. The organ turns white instead of pink. (Uncommon, may occur w hx of previous transplant or blood transfusion which contained platelets or white blood cells with foreign HLA. Acute- days to months after the transplantation and is a cell mediated immune response. Chronic- months to years after the transplant is completed. It is characterized by a slow, weak cell mediated immune response.Infection6.Analyze the concepts of infectious disease. f.g.Analyze the following infectious disease terms: ConceptDefinition 1 Incubationperiodactive replication, no s/sdepends on microorganism: Salmonella 6-8 hrsHep B 50-180 days2 ProdromalstageInitial appearance of clinical manifest (mild)3 Invasion periodRapid multiplication of the organism and activation of the immune and inflammatory responsesorganism specific clinical manifestInflammation4 ConvalescenceContainment and resolution of the clinical manifest.