After eating a meal containing carbohydrates, blood Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 12 Distributing prohibited | Downloaded by Natalya Morgan ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|2496388
glucose levels rise. When the blood glucose levels rise, the insulin secreting cells in the pancreas release insulin into the bloodstream. This sends a signal that to the body, notifying it that it needs to remove the glucose from the blood by transporting it to the inside of cells and to use it as a method of energy (for building macromolecules). As for the liver, the insulin senses a message to store glucose as glycogen, it also signifies that the body is ready to for action. Insulin also has a opposing hormones called glucagon. This hormone has an effect after the meal is digested; it decreases glucose levels in the blood, acting like a key allowing glucose to enter into body cells. When there is a decrease in glucose, the pancreas responds by releasing glucagon into the blood. It also signals the liver to break down glycogen and release the stored glucose in the blood, so that the glucose levels can find a equilibrium. Leftover Carbohydrates (The Large Intestine) – Carbohydrates will mostly be absorbed into the bloodstream by the time the chime reaches the large intestine. Enzymes released by bacteria in the large intestine break some of the remaining indigestible carbohydrates down. The products of bacterial digestion of these slow releasing carbohydrates are short-chain fatty acids and some gases. The short-chain fatty acids are either used by the bacteria to make energy and grow, are eliminated in the feces, or are absorbed into cells of the colon, with a small amount being transported to the liver. The large intestine mainly absorbs excess water and prepares the feces for elimination. Carbohydrates that were not digested and absorbed by the small intestine reach the colon where they are partly broken down by intestinal bacteria. Fiber, Assignment 2 :: Biology 235: Human Anatomy and Physiology 13 Distributing prohibited | Downloaded by Natalya Morgan ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|2496388
which cannot be digested like other carbohydrates, is excreted with feces. Unabsorbed chyme enters the large intestine, starting at the cecum, and then going up the ascending colon, across the transverse colon, down the descending colon, and across the sigmoid colon. 7.Fill in the words or phrases that best complete the sentence. a. Metabolism is the sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body, while catabolism refers to chemical reactions that decompose large molecules into smaller ones. b. Reduction is the chemical reaction in which there is a gain of electrons and it is the opposite of oxidation . c. Acetyl co-enzyme is a coenzyme that carries hydrogen atoms during coupled oxidation reactions in the cell.
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